Hospital implementation of computerized provider order entry systems: results from the 2003 Leapfrog Group quality and safety survey.
The Leapfrog Group's widely recognized efforts to promote patient safety include an initiative to mandate implementation of computerized provider order entry (CPOE) systems at hospitals across the country. This survey of more than 840 participating hospitals demonstrated that while only 3.7% use fully implemented systems, 92% shared plans for at least partial implementation of a CPOE system. Discussion includes analysis of the organizational and financial characteristics of participating hospitals, how hospitals with full implementation differ from those with partial efforts, and various predictors of implementation. Few statistically significant organizational factors were correlated to the variability in CPOE implementation, including profitability, bed size, or penetration of health care maintenance organizations (HMOs). The authors suggest that ongoing changes to financial incentives in health care, such as pay-for-performance, will continue to promote adoption of these technologies that support patient safety.