Understanding the knowledge gaps in whistleblowing and speaking up in health care: narrative reviews of the research literature and formal inquiries, a legal analysis and stakeholder interviews.

Mannion R; Blenkinsopp J; Powell M; McHale J; Millar R; Snowden N; Davies H.

Staff willingness to speak up about safety and process concerns enables organization and practice improvements that prevent patient harm. This review explores challenges to raising concerns in the National Health Service and discusses policies that support whistleblowers. Further research is needed to examine organizational failures when concerns are reported.