Cognitive errors in diagnosis: instantiation, classification, and consequences.
Kassirer JP, Kopelman RI. Am J Med. 1989;86:433-441.
This study analyzed 40 consecutive transcripts of problem-solving exercises to identify cognitive diagnostic errors. The errors captured were classified and presented with each step of the diagnostic process further dissected. Discussion includes detailed examples of each cognitive error type to better illustrate the results, as well as context for development of cognitive biases. The authors conclude that cognitive errors lead to serious morbidity. Classification of these error types may lead to future prevention efforts as a result of greater understanding.
Identifying diagnostic errors in primary care using an electronic screening algorithm.
Singh H, Thomas EJ, Khan MM, Petersen LA. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:302-308.
Overconfidence as a cause of diagnostic error in medicine.
Berner ES, Graber ML. Am J Med. 2008;121(suppl 1):S2-S23.
Clinician mindfulness and patient safety.
Sibinga EMS, Wu AW. JAMA. 2010;304:2532-2533.
Flaws in clinical reasoning: a common cause of diagnostic error.
Wellbery C. Am Fam Physician. 2011;84:1042-1048.
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