The landmark Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, To Err Is Human, called for states to publicly report never events—medical errors that resulted in death or severe disability. This National Quality Forum publication evaluates the current status of state reporting systems 10 years after the IOM report, and summarizes the strengths and limitations of current public reporting initiatives. To date, 28 states maintain some type of reporting system, primarily tracking never events and health care–associated infections. However, states vary significantly in their implementation of these systems, requirements for reporting errors, and regulations regarding analysis and follow-up of errors, limiting the effect of reporting systems on improving patient safety. An AHRQ WebM&M perspective discusses the challenges and opportunities faced by current state reporting systems.