Implementation of electronic health records and computerized provider order entry (CPOE) is considered crucial to overall efforts to improve the quality and safety of care, despite their slow adoption and debated impact. This retrospective study evaluated the role of CPOE and electronic medication administration record (eMAR) use on hospital performance on 11 quality indicators. Compared with non-adopters, hospitals with an eMAR only and with both eMAR and CPOE had higher rates of adherence to quality indicators. Adherence to medication guidelines was also greater in hospitals with longer duration of use with both systems. A past AHRQ WebM&M conversation and perspective discussed computerization in health care, particularly for medication safety.