This AHRQ–funded study evaluated more than 250 publications in determining the major studied benefits of health information technology (HIT). The benefits reported include improved adherence to guideline-based care, enhanced surveillance and monitoring, and decreased medication errors. In addition, although decreased utilization of care was noted, specific time utilization measures and empirical cost data were either mixed or limited. The authors caution that translating the benefits reported in these high-quality studies may be limited, owing to their evaluation in four benchmark research institutions. The authors discuss the implications of their findings in the context of existing political and financial drivers. This systematic review builds on past studies that focused on specific aspects of HIT, such as computerized provider order entry (CPOE).