WebM&M Cases & Commentaries
WebM&M (Morbidity & Mortality Rounds on the Web) features expert analysis of medical errors reported anonymously by our readers. Spotlight Cases include interactive learning modules available for CME. Commentaries are written by patient safety experts and published monthly. Contribute by Submitting a Case anonymously.
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Elise Orvedal Leiten, MD, and Rune Nielsen, MD, PhD; January 2019
Hospitalized in the ICU with hypoxic respiratory failure due to community-acquired pneumonia, an elderly man had increased pulmonary secretions on hospital day 2 for which the critical care provider decided to perform bedside bronchoscopy. Following the procedure, the patient was difficult to arouse, nearly apneic, and required intubation. The care team paused and discovered that after the patient had received 2 mg of intravenous midalozam, his IV line had been flushed with an additional 10 mg of the benzodiazepine, rather than the intended normal saline. This high dose of midazolam led to the respiratory failure requiring intubation. On top of that, instead of normal saline, lidocaine had been used for the lung lavage.
- Spotlight Case
Maria J. Silveira, MD, MA, MPH; June 2016
An older man with multiple medical conditions was found hypoxic, hypotensive, and tachycardic. He was taken to the hospital. Providers there were unable to determine the patient's wishes for life-sustaining care, and, unaware that he had previously completed a DNR/DNI order, they placed him on a mechanical ventilator.
- Spotlight Case
Mark W. Scerbo, PhD, and Alfred Z. Abuhamad, MD; January 2015
A woman who had an uncomplicated pregnancy and normal labor with no apparent signs of distress delivered a cyanotic, flaccid infant requiring extensive resuscitation. Although fetal heart rate tracings had shown signs of moderate-to-severe fetal distress for 90 minutes prior to delivery, clinicians did not notice the abnormalities on the remote centralized monitor, which displayed 16 windows, each for a different patient.
Jeffrey H. Barsuk, MD, MS, and Cynthia Barnard, MBA, MSJS; December 2014
In a simulation exercise conducted in an institution that felt it was prepared for patients with actual or suspected Ebola, a man presented to the emergency department with symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and fever. He had recently returned to the US from Sierra Leone. The nurse initiated an isolation protocol and the critical care team all donned personal protective equipment. During transport, confusion about which elevators to use potentially exposed 30 staff members to Ebola. Additional issues occurred including breaching sterile technique while inserting a central line and confusion about the process to transport the patient's blood to the lab.
Delphine Tuot, MDCM, MAS; September 2014
A patient with ALS was hospitalized with presumed pneumonia and sepsis. Although he was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics and fluid resuscitation, additional potassium was administered due to his potassium level remaining low. The patient went into cardiac arrest and resuscitation attempts were unsuccessful.
Matthias Görges, PhD, and J. Mark Ansermino, MBBCh, MSc; September 2014
A man with atrial fibrillation underwent ablation in the catheterization laboratory under general endotracheal anesthesia. The patient was extremely stable during the 7-hour procedure with vital signs hardly changing over time. Inadvertently, the noninvasive blood pressure measurement stopped recording for 1 hour but went unnoticed. After the error was discovered, the case continued without any problems and the patient was discharged home the next day as planned.
Don C. Rockey, MD; July-August 2014
Presenting with jaundice and epigastric pain, a woman with a history of multiple malignancies was admitted directly for an ultrasound-guided liver biopsy. After the procedure, the patient had low blood pressure and complained of new abdominal pain, which worsened over the next 2 hours. The bedside nurse soon found the patient unresponsive.
Raymond L. Fowler, MD, and Melanie J. Lippmann, MD; July-August 2014
During a code blue, an intraosseous line was placed in the left tibia of an elderly woman after several unsuccessful attempts to obtain peripheral venous access. Following chest compressions and advanced cardiovascular life support protocol, spontaneous circulation returned and the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit. A few hours later, the left leg was dusky purple with sluggish distal pulses.
- Spotlight Case
Margaret C. Fang, MD, MPH; December 2013
Two days after knee replacement surgery, a woman with a history of deep venous thrombosis receiving pain control via epidural catheter was restarted on her outpatient dose of rivaroxaban (a newer oral anticoagulant). Although the pain service fellow scanned the medication list for traditional anticoagulants, he did not notice the patient was taking rivaroxaban before removing the epidural catheter, placing the patient at very high risk for bleeding.
Sonia C. Swayze, RN, MA, and Angela James, RN, BSN; March 2013
While drawing labs on a woman admitted after a lung transplant, a nurse failed to clamp the patient's large-bore central line, allowing air to enter the catheter. The patient suffered a cerebral air embolism and was transferred to the ICU for several days.
Mark Ault, MD, and Bradley Rosen, MD, MBA; February 2013
A woman found unresponsive at home presented to the ED via ambulance. The cardiology team used the central line placed during resuscitation to deliver medications and fluids during pacemaker insertion. Hours later, a chest radiograph showed whiteout of the right lung, and clinicians realized that the tip of the line was actually within the lung.
- Spotlight Case
Jeffrey H. Barsuk, MD, MS; July 2012
Following gallbladder removal, a patient presented with abdominal pain and fluid in her abdomen. The admitting team, comprised of a second-year resident and intern, decided to perform a paracentesis (fluid removal) without supervision. The patient had a complication necessitating emergency surgery and an ICU stay.
Debora Simmons, PhD, RN; September 2011
Following surgery, a cancer patient was receiving total parenteral nutrition and lipids through a central venous catheter and pain control through an epidural catheter. A nurse mistakenly connected a new bottle of lipids to the epidural tubing rather than the central line, and the error was not noticed for several hours.
Nancy Spector, PhD, RN ; March 2011
While caring for a complex patient in the surgical intensive care unit, a nurse incorrectly set up the continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) machine, raising questions about how new nurses should be trained in high-risk procedures.
- Spotlight Case
Jean L. Holley, MD ; October 2010
A man with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis was dialyzed with equipment that had been inappropriately reused, exposing the patient to another patient's blood numerous times.
Dorrie K. Fontaine, RN, PhD; October 2009
A toddler admitted for severe dehydration requires a femoral IV. The anesthesiologist ignores a nurse's reminder that hospital policy requires monitoring if a child is to receive sedation in the unit. When the nurse attempts to stop the procedure, the anesthesiologist throws the needle to the floor.
Norma A. Metheny, RN, PhD; Kathleen L. Meert, MD; September 2008
A boy was receiving enteral feedings while recovering from a traumatic brain injury. The nasojejunal tube migrated to the gastric area, and the patient developed pneumonia, likely due to aspiration.
- Spotlight Case
Colin P. West, MD, PhD; January 2008
An elderly man with COPD and end-stage congestive heart failure was admitted for increasing shortness of breath, due to a pleural effusion. A resident performed a thoracentesis on the wrong side, and the patient developed a pneumothorax and died. The resident disclosed the error but was devastated.
Lisa Schulmeister, RN, MN, APRN-BC; January 2008
A nurse has trouble placing an IV catheter for a woman receiving her first dose of outpatient chemotherapy. The patient complains of pain at the site. Closer examination revealed that the chemotherapy had infused outside of the vein into the skin.
Heather Cleland, MBBS; Jason Wasiak, BN, MPH; December 2007
After removing the IV line on an infant receiving IV fluid and antibiotics, a nurse places a warm compress on the wound site. Later, another nurse discovers that the compress has caused a burn.