Journal Article

Restricted duty hours for surgeons and impact on residents quality of life, education, and patient care: a literature review.

Pape H-C, Pfeifer R. Patient safety in surgery. 2009;3:3.

This review analyzed 21 studies of the effects of duty hour regulations on surgical residency programs and found that residents' quality of life improved and patient outcomes appeared unaffected. However, the effect on surgeons' education was unclear.