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PSNet: Patient Safety Network
Journal Article

Challenging authority during an emergency—the effect of a teaching intervention.

Friedman Z, Perelman V, McLuckie D, et al. Critical care medicine. 2017;45:e814-e820.

Anesthesia residents who received specific training in communication strategies to challenge a supervisor's decision performed better in a simulated anesthetic emergency compared to residents who received only general teamwork training. This suggests that targeted educational strategies may be effective at flattening hierarchies in emergency situations.