Journal Article

Challenging authority during a life-threatening crisis: the effect of operating theatre hierarchy.

Sydor DT; Bould MD; Naik VN; Burjorjee J; Arzola C; Hayter M; Friedman Z.

In this simulation study, the majority of anesthesia trainees complied with a supervisor's order to transfuse blood to a patient who, for religious reasons, had explicitly refused transfusions under any circumstances. Most trainees did not question the order even when a non-hierarchical team structure had been established. This study mirrors a classic study of the authority gradient between nurses and attending physicians.