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Journal Article

Cognitive errors in diagnosis: instantiation, classification, and consequences.

Kassirer JP, Kopelman RI. The American journal of medicine. 1989;86:433-41.

This study analyzed 40 consecutive transcripts of problem-solving exercises to identify cognitive diagnostic errors. The errors captured were classified and presented with each step of the diagnostic process further dissected. Discussion includes detailed examples of each cognitive error type to better illustrate the results, as well as context for development of cognitive biases. The authors conclude that cognitive errors lead to serious morbidity. Classification of these error types may lead to future prevention efforts as a result of greater understanding.