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PSNet: Patient Safety Network
Journal Article

A cycle of redemption in a medical error disclosure and apology program.

Carmack HJ. Qualitative health research. 2014;24:860-869.

Clinicians who are involved in a medical error and experience considerable emotional distress, shame, and self-doubt are considered second victims. This commentary used interviews with physicians and administrators involved in a hospital's disclosure and apology program to determine the emotional process physicians undergo after committing and disclosing a medical error.