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PSNet: Patient Safety Network
Journal Article
Study

The etiology of diagnostic errors: a controlled trial of System 1 versus System 2 reasoning.

Norman G, Sherbino J, Dore K, et al. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges. 2014;89:277-84.

Resident physicians instructed to be "careful, thorough, and reflective" when answering clinical vignette questions took 30% more time with each case but did not have better diagnostic accuracy compared with residents who were told to answer as quickly as possible. These results suggest diagnostic errors are not simply related to insufficient attention or time.