Journal Article

Influence of surgeon behavior on trainee willingness to speak up: a randomized controlled trial.

Salazar MJB, Minkoff H, Bayya J, et al. Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 2014;219:1001-7.

Silence and poor communication are known threats to patient safety. In this simulation study, medical students were more likely to speak up if they noticed an error when paired with an attending surgeon who used encouraging rather than dismissive language.