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PSNet: Patient Safety Network
Journal Article

Interventions promoting employee "speaking-up" within healthcare workplaces: a systematic narrative review of the international literature.

Jones A, Blake J, Adams M, et al. Health Policy. 2021;125(3):375-384.

A key component of patient safety culture is the ability of staff to speak up about patient safety concerns without fear of repercussions. An analysis of 34 studies on speaking-up behavior revealed two narrative themes on why interventions were or were not successful: hierarchical, interdisciplinary, and cultural relationships, and psychological safety. Although interventions varied, there were international similarities in workplace norms and culture. Improving speaking-up behavior in healthcare settings is complex and no intervention is one-size-fits-all.