Leading change: why transformation efforts fail.
Kotter JP. Harvard Bus Rev 1995;73(2);59-67.
Kotter, a professor at Harvard Business School, outlines the eight stages of a successful change process, as well as common mistakes and pitfalls at each of the stages. These mistakes include not establishing a great enough sense of urgency, not creating a powerful enough guiding coalition, lacking a clear vision, under-communicating the vision by a factor of 10, not removing obstacles to implementation of the vision, not systematically planning for and creating short-term wins, declaring victory too soon, and not anchoring changes in the corporation’s culture. He uses examples of failures from transformation efforts in large and small businesses.