Journal Article

Physician gender and apologies in clinical interactions.

Hill KM, Blanch-Hartigan D. Patient education and counseling. 2018;101:836-842.

This simulation study demonstrated that patient preferences for apologies depend on the physician's gender. Participants were instructed to imagine they were patients experiencing an adverse event. Analogue patients preferred female physicians to make emotion-based apologies and male physicians to apologize based on the processes and facts that led to an error. This study adds to the growing literature on how physician gender influences patient interactions.