Journal Article

The 'time-out' procedure: an institutional ethnography of how it is conducted in actual clinical practice.

Braaf S, Manias E, Riley R. BMJ quality & safety. 2013;22:647-55.

This ethnographic study found that preoperative time outs were invariably not performed as recommended, in part due to production pressures. Similar findings were noted in a study of real-world surgical safety checklist usage.