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PSNet: Patient Safety Network
Journal Article
Commentary

A unified model of patient safety (or "Who froze my cheese?").

Coiera E, Collins S, Kuziemsky C. BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 2013;347:f7273.

This commentary combines two models of systems safety concepts—Reason's Swiss Cheese model and the Iceberg theory—and applies variations of the hybrid concepts to explain hazards in care delivery. The authors suggest that these models demonstrate how oversimplifying complex health systems may inhibit understanding about patient safety.