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The PSNet Collection: All Content

The AHRQ PSNet Collection comprises an extensive selection of resources relevant to the patient safety community. These resources come in a variety of formats, including literature, research, tools, and Web sites. Resources are identified using the National Library of Medicine’s Medline database, various news and content aggregators, and the expertise of the AHRQ PSNet editorial and technical teams.

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Displaying 1 - 20 of 43 Results
Rice S, Carr K, Sobiesuo P, et al. Lancet Infect Dis. 2023;23:e228-e239.
Health care-associated infections continue to be one of the most common health care-related complications. This systematic review including 67 studies identified several cost-effective interventions addressing health care-associated infections, including screening high-risk individuals, universal decolonization in intensive care units, hand hygiene, environmental cleaning, and surveillance. The authors found limited evidence evaluating the cost-effectiveness of other strategies such as education and training or use of personal protective equipment.
Welch-Horan TB, Mullan PC, Momin Z, et al. Adv Simul (Lond). 2022;7:36.
The COVID-19 pandemic challenged the way healthcare teams functions. This article describes the implementation of a hospital-wide COVID-19 clinical event debriefing program, which encouraged care team members to reflect on what went well and what could be improved upon during care encounters with patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Qualitative synthesis of 31 debriefings highlighted issues with personal protective equipment, confusion around team roles, and the importance of both intra-team communication and situational awareness.
de Kraker MEA, Tartari E, Tomczyk S, et al. Lancet Infect Dis. 2022;22:835-844.
Hand hygiene is known to be a critical part of effective infection prevention and control. This study examined the level of hand hygiene implementation using the WHO Hand Hygiene Self-Assessment Framework global survey and its drivers. There were 3,206 organizations from 90 different countries that responded. Over half of the participants indicated they had intermediate hand hygiene implementation, particularly those with higher county income levels and facility funding. Implementation of alcohol-based hand rub stations was an important system change associated with improved scores.
Thibault R, Abbasoglu O, Ioannou E, et al. Clin Nutr. 2021;40:5684-5709.
Mistakes in hospital dietary services can contribute to allergic reactions and patient malnourishment. This guidance shares an improvement approach to care environment food provision that considers clinical concerns and patient limitations as steps toward enhancing patient care.
Dhahri AA, Refson J. BMJ Leader. 2021;5:203-205.
… collaboration. This commentary describes one hospital’s approach to shifting the surgical leadership role to … affect quality and safety performance. … Dhahri AA, Refson J. Leadership: an effective human factor during COVID-19. BMJ …
Abbas M, Robalo Nunes T, Martischang R, et al. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2021;10:7.
The large burden placed on hospitals and healthcare providers during the COVID-19 pandemic has raised concerns about nosocomial transmission of the virus. This narrative review summarizes existing reports on nosocomial outbreaks of COVID-19 and the strategies health systems have implemented to control healthcare-associated outbreaks. The authors found little evidence describing the role of healthcare workers in reducing or amplifying infection transmission in healthcare settings.  
Drey N, Gould D, Purssell E, et al. BMJ Qual Saf. 2020;29:756-763.
This thematic analysis explored variations in the impact of hand hygiene interventions to prevent healthcare-associated infections. The analysis identified several directions for future research, including exploring ways to avoid the Hawthorne effect, embed the interventions into wider patient safety initiatives, and develop systematic approaches to implementation.
Tartari E, Saris K, Kenters N, et al. PLoS One. 2020;15.
Presenteeism among healthcare workers can lead to burnout and healthcare-associated infections, but prior research has found that significant numbers of healthcare workers continue to work despite having influenza-like illness. This study surveyed 249 healthcare workers and 284 non-healthcare workers from 49 countries about their behaviors when experiencing influenza-like illness between October 2018 and January 2019. Overall, 59% of workers would continue to work when experiencing influenza-like illness, and the majority of healthcare workers (89.2-99.2%) and non-healthcare workers (80-96.5%) would continue to work with mild symptoms, such as a mild cough, fatigue or sinus cold.  Fewer non-healthcare workers (16.2%) than healthcare workers (26.9%) would continue working with fever alone.
Dieplinger B, Egger M, Jezek C, et al. Am J Infect Control. 2020;48:386-390.
This observational study enrolled 2,576 women undergoing cesarean delivery at a single tertiary care hospital over a five-year period to evaluate the impact of an evidence-based bundle on surgical site infections. The comprehensive and multidisciplinary bundle included preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative actions. Implementation of the bundle resulted in a 60% reduction in the risk of surgical site infections, from 1.5% in the preintervention period to 0.56% after implementation.
Mangin D, Risdon C, Lamarche L, et al. Ther Adv Drug Saf. 2019;10:2042098619838796.
This focus group study assessed patient perspectives on medication decisions. Investigators identified themes of patients' lived experience, the relationship between prescriber and patient, and the medical system as the key factors that influenced medication discussions. The authors call for more patient engagement to enhance medication safety.

Cunha CB, ed. Med Clin North Am. 2018;102(5):797-976.

Antimicrobial stewardship programs are a key strategy to reduce overprescribing of antibiotics in hospitals. This special issue explores approaches to engage a variety of clinicians in supporting antimicrobial stewardship program implementation and optimizing antibiotic use to ensure safe patient care.
Liu D, Gan R, Zhang W, et al. J Clin Pathol. 2018;71:67-71.
Autopsies are an underutilized tool for identifying diagnostic errors. Researchers evaluated 117 autopsies for patients in Shanghai whose cause of death was disputed or required third-party investigation. Diagnostic errors that would have altered treatment or survival were found in nearly 61%. This number is higher than estimates from a previous systematic review, likely because all patients in this sample had a disputed cause of death.

Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018. ISBN-13: 978-92-4-155047-5.

Efforts to reduce surgical site infections have achieved some success. The World Health Organization has taken a leading role in eliminating health care–associated harms and has compiled guidelines to address factors that contribute to surgical site infections in preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative care. The document includes recommendations for improvement informed by the latest evidence. The second edition of the Guidelines was released in 2018.
Sun AJ, Wang L, Go M, et al. BMJ Qual Saf. 2018;27:156-162.
Interruptions can lead to errors, particularly when providers are sleep deprived. This retrospective cross-sectional study of pages sent to overnight general surgery and internal medicine physicians found that 27.7% were nonurgent. The authors assert that nonurgent paging contributes to alarm fatigue and suggest potential solutions.
Tartari E, Weterings V, Gastmeier P, et al. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2017;6:45.
Patient participation in their safe care is a key improvement strategy. This commentary provides expert review of the evidence on how to engage patients in preventing surgical site infections. The authors recommend strategies to drive improvement, including the use of printed information to encourage patient involvement.
Berríos-Torres SI, Umscheid CA, Bratzler DW, et al. JAMA Surg. 2017;152.
Surgical site infections are a common hospital-acquired condition. This clinical guideline reviews the literature and gathers expert opinion to identify generalizable evidence-based strategies to reduce surgical site infections. The authors highlight antimicrobial, preoperative hygiene, glycemic control, and skin preparation procedures to prevent infection.
Siam B, Al-Kurd A, Simanovsky N, et al. JAMA Surg. 2017;152:679-685.
Balancing supervision and autonomy for trainee physicians is a contested area in patient safety. This analysis of medical record data at a single institution compared complication rates following acute appendectomy between surgical resident physicians and attending surgeons. As measured by a composite score, the complication rate did not differ between trainees and attending surgeons. There was no difference in the rate of follow-up imaging, length of stay, or duration of antibiotics following surgery. On average, trainees took about 9 minutes longer to complete the surgery. The authors conclude that trainees do not require attending supervision to safely perform appendectomies. A related editorial calls for greater surgical resident autonomy and notes the importance of real-life experience with procedures to prepare residents for independent practice. A past PSNet perspective explored this tension between supervision and autonomy in medical education.
Zingg W, Holmes A, Dettenkofer M, et al. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015;15:212-224.
This systematic review of interventions to prevent health care–associated infections identified organizational factors such as positive safety culture, hospital-wide infection control efforts, guidelines, training, auditing, feedback, and optimal staffing and ergonomics. The results suggest that reducing hospital-acquired infections requires a systems approach.