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The PSNet Collection: All Content

The AHRQ PSNet Collection comprises an extensive selection of resources relevant to the patient safety community. These resources come in a variety of formats, including literature, research, tools, and Web sites. Resources are identified using the National Library of Medicine’s Medline database, various news and content aggregators, and the expertise of the AHRQ PSNet editorial and technical teams.

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Displaying 1 - 20 of 24 Results
Jones BE, Sarvet AL, Ying J, et al. JAMA Netw Open. 2023;6:e2314185.
Pneumonia is one of the most common healthcare-acquired infections and can result in significantly longer lengths of stay and increased costs. In this retrospective study of more than six million hospitalized Veterans Health Administration patients, approximately 1 in 200 patients developed non-ventilator-associated hospital-acquired pneumonia (NV-HAP). Length of stay and mortality were significantly higher for patients with NV-HAP.
Samal L, Khasnabish S, Foskett C, et al. J Patient Saf. 2022;18:611-616.
Adverse events can be identified through multiple methods, including trigger tools and voluntary reporting systems. In this comparison study, the Global Trigger Tool identified 79 AE in 88 oncology patients, compared to 21 in the voluntary reporting system; only two AE were identified by both. Results indicate multiple sources should be used to detect AE.
Hsu HE, Mathew R, Wang R, et al. JAMA Pediatr. 2020;174:1176-1183.
Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) and central catheter-associated blood stream infections (CLABSI), are common complications in hospitalized patients, particularly among critically-ill children. Using surveillance data from January 2013 to June 2018, the authors did not identify any significant changes in CLABSI rates in NICUs or PICUs.  These trends indicate that past gains in CLABSI rates have held, without evidence of further improvement.  The authors noted modest improvements in CAUTI rates, observing a significant decrease in CAUTI rates in the PICU, corresponding with a significant decrease in indwelling urinary catheter use.
Rhee C, Jones TM, Hamad Y, et al. JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2:e187571.
The degree to which sepsis contributes to inpatient mortality and the extent to which sepsis-associated inpatient mortality is preventable remains unknown. In this retrospective cohort study, researchers analyzed the medical records of 568 adult patients hospitalized at 6 United States hospitals who either died during the hospitalization or were discharged to hospice. They found a diagnosis of sepsis was present in 300 cases and that it was the main cause of death in 198 cases. Reviewers rated 11 of the 300 sepsis-associated deaths as definitely or moderately likely preventable. The authors conclude that it may be challenging to further reduce sepsis-associated inpatient mortality.
Calderwood MS, Kawai AT, Jin R, et al. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2018;39:897-901.
The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) nonpayment policy for health care–associated infections is widely viewed as a catalyst for infection prevention initiatives. This analysis of Medicare fee-for-service claims data shows that following nonpayment policy implementation, there was a substantial increase in claims in which central line–associated bloodstream infections and catheter-associated urinary tract infections were reported to be present on arrival to the hospital. According to this analysis, because CMS continued to reimburse hospitals for conditions present on arrival, the nonpayment policy did not have significant financial impact. The authors conclude that the nonpayment policy for health care–associated infections did not have its intended effect. A past PSNet interview discussed the potential benefits and limitations of insurers not paying for preventable complications.
Rhee C, Dantes RB, Epstein L, et al. JAMA. 2017;318:1241-1249.
Early identification of sepsis is essential for initiating appropriate treatment and preventing mortality. In this retrospective study, researchers used clinical data to estimate the incidence of sepsis over time at 409 academic, community, and federal hospitals over a 6-year period. They found that the incidence of sepsis remained stable during this time. Although inpatient mortality due to sepsis declined somewhat, there was no change in the combined outcome of death or discharge to hospice. In contrast, analysis of claims-based data suggests a significant increase in the incidence of sepsis over time as well as a marked decrease in sepsis mortality and death or discharge to hospice. The authors conclude that analysis of clinical data may provide a better understanding of sepsis trends. The accompanying editorial highlights challenges associated with measuring the sepsis incidence and mortality.
Mlaver E, Schnipper JL, Boxer RB, et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2017;43:676-685.
This commentary describes an AHRQ-funded project to develop an interactive web-based dashboard to communicate patient data in real time to augment safety of care activities. The authors review important functions of the tool, considerations for future development, and initial evaluation results.
Rawat N, Yang T, Ali KJ, et al. Crit Care Med. 2017;45:1208-1215.
Patients requiring intensive care are particularly vulnerable to preventable adverse events, including health care–associated infections. This AHRQ-funded study examined the effect of a collaborative to prevent adverse events in patients requiring mechanical ventilation in 56 intensive care units (ICUs) in 2 states over a 3-year period. The participating ICUs introduced a multifaceted intervention structured around the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program, focusing on implementing evidence-based safety processes by explicitly addressing barriers to improvement and engaging in regular data audit and feedback. Participating hospitals were able to significantly reduce the rate of ventilator-associated adverse events (including ventilator-associated pneumonia) over the study period. Although the study is limited by lack of a concurrent control group, the results indicate the power of collaborative efforts to drive large-scale improvement.
Dykes PC, Rozenblum R, Dalal A, et al. Crit Care Med. 2017;45.
Establishing a strong safety culture may lead to a reduction in adverse events. Many health care institutions are focused on improving multiple aspects of culture including teamwork, communication, and patient engagement to mitigate harm. In this prospective study, researchers sought to understand the impact of a multicomponent intervention involving structured team communication as well as patient engagement tools and training on patient safety in the intensive care unit. They included 1030 admissions in the baseline period and 1075 in the intervention period. The rate of adverse events decreased by almost 30%, from 59.0 per 1000 patient days in the baseline period to 41.9 per 1000 patient days during the intervention period. Patient and care partner satisfaction improved as well. A past PSNet perspective discussed the relationship between patient engagement and patient safety.
Rhee C, Kadri SS, Danner RL, et al. Crit Care. 2016;20:89.
Early intervention for sepsis can improve patient outcomes, and in turn prompt diagnosis is critical. Using case vignettes, this survey of intensivists found substantial variation in accurately diagnosing sepsis. This work has significant implications for initiatives aimed at improving the timely recognition of this condition.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2014;35(Suppl 2):s1-s178;35:460-463;797-801.

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Goutier JM, Holzmueller CG, Edwards KC, et al. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2014;35:998-1005.
Ventilator-associated pneumonia is one of the most common health care–associated infections in intensive care unit patients. This systematic review identifies several strategies, including standardization of care processes, performing regular data audits, and providing feedback, that can enhance adoption of evidence-based preventive strategies.
Lee GM, Kleinman K, Soumerai SB, et al. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:1428-37.
In 2008, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) eliminated reimbursement for certain preventable errors and hospital-acquired infections. This landmark policy aimed to align financial disincentives with adverse events, an increasingly utilized strategy. However, this AHRQ-funded study found that the "no pay for errors" policy had no measurable effect on rates of catheter–associated bloodstream infections and catheter–associated urinary tract infections in hospitals in the United States. No subgroup of hospitals or patients identified in this national evaluation seemed to clearly benefit from this policy change. The benefits and limitations of the CMS policy are discussed in an AHRQ WebM&M interview with Dr. Robert Wachter.