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The PSNet Collection: All Content

The AHRQ PSNet Collection comprises an extensive selection of resources relevant to the patient safety community. These resources come in a variety of formats, including literature, research, tools, and Web sites. Resources are identified using the National Library of Medicine’s Medline database, various news and content aggregators, and the expertise of the AHRQ PSNet editorial and technical teams.

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Displaying 1 - 20 of 58 Results
Donzé JD, John G, Genné D, et al. JAMA Internal Med. 2023;183:658-668.
Adverse events and unplanned, preventable readmissions occur in approximately 20% of patients following discharge from the hospital. This randomized clinical trial compares standard care with a multi-modal discharge intervention targeting patients at highest risk of unplanned readmission. Despite the intensity of the intervention, there was no statistical difference between that intensity and the standard of care in unplanned readmission, time to readmission, or death.
Schnipper JL, Reyes Nieva H, Yoon CS, et al. BMJ Qual Saf. 2023;32:457-469.
Implementing successful interventions to support effective medication reconciliation is an ongoing challenge. The MARQUIS2 study examined whether system- and patient-level interventions plus physician mentors can improve medication reconciliation and reduce medication discrepancies. This analysis based on patient exposure in the MARQUIS2 study found that patient receipt of a best possible medication history (BPMH) in the emergency department and medication reconciliation at admission and discharge were associated with the largest reductions in medication discrepancy rates.
Auerbach AD, Astik GJ, O’Leary KJ, et al. J Gen Intern Med. 2023;38:1902-1910.
COVID-19 ushered in new diagnostic challenges and changes in care practices. In this study conducted during the first wave of the pandemic, charts for hospitalized adult patients under investigation (PUI) for COVID-19 were reviewed for potential diagnostic error. Diagnostic errors were identified in 14% of cases; patients with and without diagnostic errors were statistically similar and errors were not associated with pandemic-related change practices.
Patient Safety Innovation March 29, 2023

Medication reconciliation is a common strategy to improve patient safety but is complex and time consuming. Three academic medical centers developed and implemented a risk stratification tool so limited pharmacist resources could be allocated to patients with the highest likelihood of medication adverse events.

Schnock KO, Garber A, Fraser H, et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2023;49:89-97.
Reducing diagnostic errors is a primary patient safety concern. This qualitative study based on interviews with 17 providers and two focus group with seven patient advisors found broad agreement that diagnostic errors pose a significant threat to patient safety, as participants had difficulty defining and describing, and correctly identifying. the frequency of diagnostic errors in acute care settings. Participants cited issues such as communication failures, diagnostic uncertainty, and cognitive load as the primary factors contributing to diagnostic errors.
Malik MA, Motta-Calderon D, Piniella N, et al. Diagnosis (Berl). 2022;9:446-457.
Structured tools are increasingly used to identify diagnostic errors and related harms using electronic health record data. In this study, researchers compared the performance of two validated tools (Safer Dx and the DEER taxonomy) to identify diagnostic errors among patients with preventable or non-preventable deaths. Findings indicate that diagnostic errors and diagnostic process failures contributing to death were higher in preventable deaths (56%) but were also present in non-preventable deaths (17%).
Starmer AJ, Spector ND, O'Toole JK, et al. J Hosp Med. 2023;18:5-14.
I-PASS is a structured handoff tool to enhance communication during patient transfers and improve patient safety. This study found that I-PASS implementation at 32 hospitals decreased major and minor handoff-related adverse events and improved key handoff elements (e.g., frequency of handoffs with high verbal quality) across provider types and settings.
Tsilimingras D, Natarajan G, Bajaj M, et al. J Patient Saf. 2022;18:462-469.
Post-discharge events, such as medication errors, can occur among pediatric patients discharged from inpatient settings to home. This prospective cohort, including infants discharged from one level 4 NICU between February 2017 and July 2019, identified a high risk for post-discharge adverse events, (including procedural complications and adverse drug events) and subsequent emergency department visits or hospital readmissions. Nearly half of these events were due to management, therapeutic, or diagnostic errors and could have been prevented.
Griffin JA, Carr K, Bersani K, et al. Diagnosis (Berl). 2022;9:77-88.
Diagnostic errors in the acute care setting can result in increased morbidity and mortality. Using the Diagnostic Error Evaluation and Research (DEER) taxonomy, researchers reviewed 16 records of patients whose deaths were associated with at least one medical error. Most (81.3%) patients had at least one diagnostic error and a total of 113 failure points and 30 significant failure points.
Baughman AW, Triantafylidis LK, O'Neil N, et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2021;47:646-653.
Medication reconciliation is the process of reviewing a patient’s medication list for discrepancies and safety. Patients in nursing homes are at increased risk for medication discrepancies due to complexity of care and frequent transitions of care. By using Healthcare Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), researchers uncovered several factors that contribute to medication discrepancies. Interventions to improve medication safety can be targeted to one or more of the contributing factors.
Stolldorf DP, Ridner SH, Vogus TJ, et al. Implement Sci Commun. 2021;2:63.
Implementing effective interventions supporting medication reconciliation is an ongoing challenge. Using qualitative data, the authors explored how different hospitals implemented one evidence-based medication reconciliation toolkit. Thematic analyses suggest that the most commonly used implementation strategies included restructuring (e.g., altered staffing, equipment, data systems); quality management tools (e.g., audit and feedback, advisory boards); thorough planning and preparing for implementation; and education and training with stakeholders.
Schnipper JL, Reyes Nieva H, Mallouk M, et al. BMJ Qual Saf. 2022;31:278-286.
Medication reconciliation aims to prevent adverse events during transitions of care, but implementing effective interventions supporting medication reconciliation has proven challenging. Building upon lessons learned in the MARQUIS1 study, this pragmatic quality improvement study (MARQUIS2) implemented a refined toolkit including system-level and patient-level interventions as well as physician mentors providing remote coaching and in-person site visits. Across 17 hospital sites, the intervention was associated with a significant decrease in unintentional mediation discrepancies over time.
Urman RD, Seger DL, Fiskio JM, et al. J Patient Saf. 2021;17:e76-e83.
Harm from opioids is a widely recognized patient safety issue, and potential harm associated with short-term use is a growing area of concern. This analysis of a previously opioid-free surgical population identified a high rate of potential opioid-related adverse drug events (ORADEs); risk was strongly associated with route and duration of post-operative opioid administration. The presence of an ORADE was associated with longer postoperative length of stay, higher hospitalization costs, lower odds of discharge home, and higher odds of death.
Auerbach AD, O'Leary KJ, Greysen SR, et al. J Hosp Med. 2020;15:483-488.
Based on a survey of hospital medicine groups at academic medical centers in the United States (conducted April 2020), the authors of this study characterized inpatient adaptations to care for non-ICU COVID-19 patients. Sites reported rapid expansion of respiratory isolation units (RIUs – dedicated units for patients with known or suspected COVID-19), an emphasis on telemedicine for patient evaluation, and implementation of approaches to minimize room entry. In addition, nearly half of responding sites reported diagnostic errors involving COVID-19 (missing non-COVID-19 diagnoses among infected patients and missing COVID-19 diagnoses in patients admitted for other reasons).
Presley CA, Wooldridge KT, Byerly SH, et al. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2020;77:128-137.
This article reports mixed results of a two-year mentor-implemented feasibility study designed to improve medication reconciliation practices in rural Veterans Affairs hospitals. The authors highlight facilitators and barriers to implementing their evidence-based intervention in smaller hospitals.
Mueller SK, Shannon E, Dalal A, et al. J Patient Saf. 2021;17:e752-e757.
This single-site survey of resident and attending physicians across multiple specialties uncovered multiple safety vulnerabilities in the process of interhospital transfer. Investigators found that physicians and patients were both dissatisfied with timing of transfers and that critical patient records were missing upon transfer. These issues raise safety concerns for highly variable interhospital transfer practices.
O'Toole JK, Starmer AJ, Calaman S, et al. MedEdPORTAL. 2019;15:10794.
Champions play critical roles for implementing change in organizations. This commentary reports the results of a program to train champions of the I-PASS handoff program. The initiative used a set of tools and educational tactics to build frontline leaders' skills to mentor standardized handoffs behaviors at 32 locations. The process and tools were considered by participants as instrumental in the success of leading staff to adopt I-PASS techniques at the institutions.
O'Toole JK, Starmer AJ, Calaman S, et al. MedEdPORTAL. 2018;14:10736.
The I-PASS structured handoff tool intends to reduce errors and preventable adverse events. This article describes the development of the I-PASS Mentored Implementation Guide. The guide was considered by I-PASS sites essential, particularly the sections on the I-PASS curriculum and handoff observations.