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The PSNet Collection: All Content

The AHRQ PSNet Collection comprises an extensive selection of resources relevant to the patient safety community. These resources come in a variety of formats, including literature, research, tools, and Web sites. Resources are identified using the National Library of Medicine’s Medline database, various news and content aggregators, and the expertise of the AHRQ PSNet editorial and technical teams.

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Displaying 1 - 20 of 250 Results

James C, Singh K, Valley TS, et al. Rockville, MD; Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; July 2023. AHRQ Publication No. 23-0040-4-EF.

… using AI and ML to make diagnostic decisions. … James C, Singh K, Valley TS, et al. Rockville, MD; Agency for … … Cornelius … Karandeep … Thomas … Jenna … James … Singh … Valley … Wiens … A. … S. … Cornelius A. James … Karandeep Singh … Thomas S. Valley … Jenna Wiens …
Kulkarni PA, Singh H. JAMA. 2023;330:317-318.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is an emerging technology to potentially improve care timeliness and diagnostic accuracy. This commentary provides a grounded assessment of this potential by examining clinician knowledge, physician examination skills, and health record data factors that affect the effect of AI chatbots as a tool driving diagnostic safety.
Yang CJ, Saggar V, Seneviratne N, et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2023;49:297-305.
Simulation training is commonly used by hospitals to identify threats to safety and improve patient care. This article describes the development and implementation of an in situ simulation to improve acute airway management during the COVID-19 pandemic across five emergency departments. The simulation protocol helped identify latent safety threats involving equipment, infection control, and communication. The simulation process also helped staff identify interventions to reduce latent safety threats, including improved accessibility of airway management equipment, a designated infection control cart, and role identification cards to improve team function.
Murphy DR, Zimolzak AJ, Upadhyay DK, et al. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2023;30:1526-1531.
Measuring diagnostic performance is essential to identifying opportunities for improvement. In this study, researchers developed and evaluated two electronic clinical quality measures (eCQMs) to assess the quality of colorectal and lung cancer diagnosis. Each measure used data from the electronic health record (EHR) to identify abnormal test results, evidence of appropriate follow-up, and exclusions that signified unnecessary follow-up. The authors describe the measure testing results and outline the challenges in working with unstructured EHR data.
Sedney CL, Dekeseredy P, Singh SA, et al. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2023;65:553-561.
Health professional stigma and bias towards patients with substance use disorders can impede the delivery of effective healthcare. In this qualitative analysis of medical records for 25 patients with opioid use disorder, researchers identified several markers of stigma which can impact care, including blame and stereotyping.
Cifra CL, Custer JW, Smith CM, et al. Crit Care Med. 2023;Epub May 29.
Diagnostic errors remain a major healthcare concern. This study was a retrospective record review of 882 pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients to identify diagnostic errors using the Revised Safer Dx tool. Diagnostic errors were found in 13 (1.5%) patients, most commonly associated with atypical presentation and diagnostic uncertainty at admission.
White VanGompel E, Carlock F, Singh L, et al. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2023;52:211-222.
Cesarean delivery can lead to increased maternal morbidity and mortality. In this repeated cross-sectional study, physicians, nurses, and midwives were surveyed about their attitudes towards elective induction of labor before and after results were published from a large, randomized trial (Randomized Trial of Induction Versus Expectant Management, or ARRIVE) supporting elective inductions at 39 weeks to reduce the likelihood of a cesarean. Findings indicate that physician attitudes about induction shifted in favor of induction after ARRIVE, whereas nurse attitudes did not change. Qualitative analyses revealed four themes regarding attitudes towards induction- the importance of timing, identifying who should receive inductions, the need for clear protocols and more staff, and improvements to the induction of labor processes. 
Mahajan P, Grubenhoff JA, Cranford J, et al. BMJ Open Qual. 2023;12:e002062.
Missed diagnostic opportunities often involve multiple process breakdowns and can lead to serious avoidable patient harm. Based on a web-based survey of 1,594 emergency medicine physicians, missed diagnostic opportunities most frequently occur in children who present to the emergency department with undifferentiated symptoms (e.g., abdominal pain, fever, vomiting) and often involve issues related to the patient/parent-provider interaction, such as misinterpreting patient history or inadequate physical exam.
Zwaan L, Smith KM, Giardina TD, et al. Patient Educ Couns. 2023;110:107650.
Improving diagnosis and diagnostic error-related harm is a major focus within patient safety. Building on previous research, patients and patient advocates participated in a systematic prioritization exercise and prioritized ten diagnostic error reduction research priorities. Prioritized questions focused on improving care integration/coordination, communication between clinicians and patients/caregivers, improving patient reporting systems, and improved understanding of implicit bias, and underlying factors increasing risk for diagnostic errors among vulnerable patient groups. The authors note that these priorities differed more than those identified previously by diagnostic safety experts and stakeholders.
Sloane JF, Donkin C, Newell BR, et al. J Gen Intern Med. 2023;38:1526-1531.
Interruptions during diagnostic decision-making and clinical tasks can adversely impact patient care. This article reviews empirically-tested strategies from healthcare and cognitive psychology that can inform future research on mitigating the effects of interruptions during diagnostic decision-making. The authors highlight strategies to minimize the negative impacts of interruptions and strategies to prevent distractions altogether; in addition, they propose research priorities within the field of diagnostic safety.
WebM&M Case December 14, 2022
… her tongue laceration. … The Commentary … By Naileshni S. Singh, MD Anesthesia providers must be knowledgeable not only … [ Available at ] Komasawa N, Komatsu M, Yamasaki H, et al . Lip, tooth, and pharyngeal injuries during … [ Available at ] Yata S, Ida M, Shimotsuji H, et al. Bite injuries caused by transcranial electrical …
Aziz S, Barber J, Singh A, et al. J Hosp Med. 2022;17:880-887.
The introduction of new technology can have mixed consequences on staff workflows and patient safety. Focus groups of residents and nurses in a California children’s hospital sought to assess the advantages and shortcomings of secure text messaging systems (STMS) on teamwork, patient safety, and clinician well-being. Guidelines to reduce drawbacks are described.
Dillon-Bleich K, Dolansky MA, Burant CJ, et al. J Nurs Care Qual. 2023;38:82-88.
Safety competencies are the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of healthcare providers to improve and ensure safe patient care. This study explored the interaction of nurses’ safety competencies with structural empowerment, systems thinking, level of education and certification. Results show systems thinking was positively correlated with safety competency; the authors recommend educators review the inclusion of safety competencies and systems thinking in academic curricula.
Singh H, Mushtaq U, Marinez A, et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2022;48:581-590.
Diagnostic error continues to be a significant safety problem. Using a multimethod approach, this study developed a checklist of ten high-priority practices for diagnostic excellence which healthcare organizations can implement to address diagnostic errors. Priority practices include promoting speaking up behaviors through a just culture and psychologically safe environment; patient and family engagement in identifying, understanding, and addressing diagnostic safety concerns; and using multidisciplinary perspectives (including human factors and informatics) to understand factors contributing to diagnostic safety events.
Ostrow O, Prodanuk M, Foong Y, et al. Pediatrics. 2022;150:e2021055866.
Appropriate antibiotic prescribing is a core component of antibiotic stewardship programs to reduce the risk of antibiotic-resistant microbes. This study assessed the rate of misdiagnosed pediatric urinary tract infections (UTI) and associated antibiotic use following implementation of a quality improvement intervention. Using three interventions (diagnostic algorithm, callback system, standardized discharge antibiotic prescription), misdiagnosis of UTI decreased by half, and 2,128 antibiotic days were saved.

Zimolzak AJ, Singh H, Murphy DR, et al. BMJ Health Care Inform. 2022;29(1):e100565.

Patient safety algorithms developed through research must also be implemented into clinical practice. This article describes the process of translating an electronic health record-based algorithm for detecting missed follow-up of colorectal or lung cancer testing, from research into practice. All 12 test sites were able to successfully implement the trigger and identify appropriate cases.
Giardina TD, Shahid U, Mushtaq U, et al. J Gen Intern Med. 2022;37:3965-3972.
Achieving diagnostic safety requires multidisciplinary approaches. Based on interviews with safety leaders across the United States, this article discusses how different organizations approach diagnostic safety. Respondents discuss barriers to implementing diagnostic safety activities as well as strategies to overcome barriers, highlighting the role of patient engagement and dedicated diagnostic safety champions.