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The PSNet Collection: All Content

The AHRQ PSNet Collection comprises an extensive selection of resources relevant to the patient safety community. These resources come in a variety of formats, including literature, research, tools, and Web sites. Resources are identified using the National Library of Medicine’s Medline database, various news and content aggregators, and the expertise of the AHRQ PSNet editorial and technical teams.

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Displaying 1 - 20 of 47 Results
Olazo K, Gallagher TH, Sarkar U. J Patient Saf. 2023;19:547-552.
Marginalized patients are more likely to experience adverse events and it is important to encourage effective disclosure to reinforce and reestablish trust between patients and providers. This qualitative study involving clinicians and patient safety professionals explored challenges responding to and disclosing errors involving historically marginalized patients. Participants identified multilevel challenges, including fragmentation of care and patient mistrust as well a desire for disclosure training and culturally appropriate disclosure toolkits to support effective error disclosure.
Kim J, Cai ZR, Chen ML, et al. JAMA Netw Open. 2023;6:e2338050.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is increasingly used in healthcare, but concerns have been raised that it can exacerbate existing disparities because of underlying biases in AI tools. In this observational study, researchers evaluated biases in clinician versus AI chatbox responses to 19 clinical vignettes involving cardiology, emergency medicine, rheumatology, and dermatology. Findings indicate that both AI chatboxes and clinicians provide different clinical recommendations based on a patient’s gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status under certain clinical scenarios.
Wu AW, Papieva I, Sheridan S, et al. J Patient Saf Risk Manag. 2023;28:147-152.
True partnership with patients and families in safety work is an important yet elusive goal. This commentary outlines elements supporting engagement as part of an ambitious global plan and awareness campaign to ensure medical error reduction efforts are fully informed and enriched through the application of the patient and family experience in health care.
Grenon V, Szymonifka J, Adler-Milstein J, et al. J Patient Saf. 2023;19:211-215.
Large malpractice claims databases are increasingly used as a proxy to assess the frequency and severity of diagnostic errors. More than 5,300 closed claims with at least one diagnostic error were analyzed. No singular factor was identified; instead multiple contributing factors were implicated along the diagnostic pathway.
Wong J, Lee S-Y, Sarkar U, et al. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2022;79:2230-2243.
Medication errors in ambulatory care settings represent an ongoing patient safety challenge. This study characterizes ambulatory care adverse drug events reported to a large patient safety organization between May 2012 and October 2018. Anticoagulants, antibiotics, hypoglycemics, and opioids were the most commonly involved medication classes. Contributing factors included prescribing errors, failure to review clinical contraindications or drug-drug interactions, and lack of patient education or communication.
Adler-Milstein J, Sarkar U, Wachter RM. J Patient Saf Risk Manag. 2022;27:160-162.
… health records (EHR) house and provide access to a plethora of data to inform care and management decisions. … suggests that EHRs have yet to be fully embraced as a tool to proactively identify areas of risk that could lead to legal action. … Adler-Milstein J, Sarkar U, Wachter RM. Opportunities to mine EHRs for …
Olazo K, Wang K, Sierra M, et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2022;48:539-548.
Patients and families prefer to be told if they experience a medical error. Given that marginalized patients experience medical errors at higher rates, it is important to understand their unique perspectives and preferences towards error disclosure. This systematic review identified 6 studies focused on error disclosure in one of three marginalized populations (older adults, low education attainment, racial and/or ethnic minority).
Gupta K, Szymonifka J, Rivadeneira NA, et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2022;48:492-496.
Analysis of closed malpractice claims can be used to identify potential safety hazards in a variety of clinical settings. This analysis of closed emergency department malpractice claims indicates that diagnostic errors dominate, and clinical judgment and documentation categories continue to be associated with a higher likelihood of payout. Subcategories and contributing factors are also discussed.
Fontil V, Khoong EC, Lyles C, et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2022;48:395-402.
Missed or delayed diagnosis in primary care may result in serious complications for patients. This prospective study followed adults presenting to primary care with new or unresolved symptoms for 12 months. 32% of patients received a diagnosis within one month; most of the rest still did not have a diagnosis at 12 months (50%). The authors suggest interventions aimed at improving diagnosis should be system-based, not specific to a single medical issue or population.
Gupta K, Rivadeneira NA, Lisker S, et al. J Patient Saf. 2022;18:531-538.
Strategies to reduce clinician burnout related to adverse events are critically needed. Physicians in the United States were surveyed on their experiences with adverse events to identify facilitators and barriers to reducing burnout. A common facilitator was peer support, and barriers included shame and a punitive work environment.
Khoong EC, Sharma AE, Gupta K, et al. J Gen Intern Med. 2022;37:1270-1274.
In response to concerns about COVID-19 transmission, many ambulatory care visits have transitioned to telehealth visits. This commentary describes the impact of telehealth on diagnostic errors and medication safety in ambulatory settings. Recommendations to further understand the impact of telemedicine on patient safety include: systematically measuring patient safety outcomes and increasing reporting of safety incidents; identifying the patients and clinical scenarios with the greatest risk of unsafe telehealth care; identifying and supporting best practices to ensure equal access to safe telehealth.
Centola D, Guilbeault D, Sarkar U, et al. Nature Commun. 2021;12:6585.
… Nature Commun … Race and gender bias in healthcare remains a public health problem. Study participants were assigned to a control (i.e., independent reflection) or intervention … in patient treatment. … Centola D, Guilbeault D, Sarkar U, et al. The reduction of race and gender bias in …
Sharma AE, Huang B, Del Rosario JB, et al. BMJ Open Qual. 2021;10:e001421.
Patients and caregivers play an essential role in safe ambulatory care. This mixed-methods analysis of ambulatory safety reports identified three themes related to patient and caregivers factors contributing to events – (1) clinical advice conflicting with patient priorities, (2) breakdowns in communication and patient education contributing to medication adverse events, and (3) the fact that patients with disabilities are vulnerable to due to the external environment.  
Khoong EC, Fontil V, Rivadeneira NA, et al. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2020;28:632-637.
Diagnostic over- and under-confidence in primary care can result in misdiagnosis, impacting millions of patients every year. This intervention study evaluated the effect of peer input on diagnostic confidence on cases with diagnostic uncertainty. In cases with high diagnostic uncertainly, peer input increased provider confidence.
Sharma AE, Yang J, Del Rosario JB, et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2021;47:5-14.
Ambulatory care settings are receiving increased attention as a focus for patient safety improvements. Using data from a multistate patient safety organization (PSO) database, the researchers sought to characterize patterns and characteristics of patient safety incidents reported in ambulatory care settings. Analyses found that 5.9% of events resulted in severe harm and 1.9% resulted in patient death. Over half of the events were from outpatient subspecialty care; fewer events occurred in home/community (5.2%), primary care (2.1%), or dialysis (2.0%) settings. Medication-related events were most common, followed by clinical deterioration and falls. Predictors of higher harm included diagnostic errors, patient/caregiver challenges, and events occurring in home/community or psychiatric settings. These results can help ambulatory care settings target safety events and develop systems-level prevention strategies.  
Lyson HC, Sharma AE, Cherian R, et al. J Patient Saf. 2021;17:e335-e342.
This study used direct observation and interviews to assess hazards in the medication use process in a sample of ambulatory patients who predominantly had low health literacy. The investigators found that the outpatient medication use process is fragmented and complex with poor coordination between clinicians, pharmacists, and insurance companies, forcing patients to develop self-management strategies to manage their chronic health conditions.
Fontil V, Radcliffe K, Lyson HC, et al. JAMIA Open. 2019;2:40-48.
The use of collective intelligence platforms may have the potential to improve diagnostic accuracy in primary care, but little is known about the attitudes of primary care providers toward such platforms. This qualitative study found that primary care providers might be willing to use such platforms as long as they are easy to use, perceived as helpful and accurate, and that the collective opinions generated can be trusted.
Khoong EC, Cherian R, Rivadeneira NA, et al. Health Aff (Millwood). 2018;37:1760-1769.
California's Medicaid pay-for-performance program requires safety-net health care systems to report and improve upon diverse ambulatory safety measures. Researchers found that participating safety-net hospitals struggled to report accurate data. Systems had more success improving metrics that placed patients at risk of life-threatening harm when compared to metrics that required longer term follow-up or patient engagement.