The AHRQ PSNet Collection comprises an extensive selection of resources relevant to the patient safety community. These resources come in a variety of formats, including literature, research, tools, and Web sites. Resources are identified using the National Library of Medicine’s Medline database, various news and content aggregators, and the expertise of the AHRQ PSNet editorial and technical teams.
Previous research has found that CancelRx can improve communication between electronic health record (EHR) systems and pharmacy dispensing systems and increase successful medication discontinuation. This interrupted time series analysis assessed the impact of CancelRx implementation on successful discontinuation of medications e-prescribed in ambulatory healthcare settings. After CancelRx implementation, the proportion of e-prescriptions sold after discontinuation in the EHR decreased from 8.0% to 1.4%.
Hilario C, Louie-Poon S, Taylor M, et al. Int J Soc Determinants Health Health Serv. 2023;53:343-353.
Structural racism is increasingly recognized as a social determinant of health. This systematic review identified 13 articles on the impact of racism on racialized adolescents. Most articles focused on the impact of racism on healthcare access and utilization, and in general or mental health care. Research into multiple forms of racism (i.e., institutional, interpersonal, internalized) and development and incorporation of robust measures of racism is needed to advance the field.
Watterson TL, Steege LM, Mott DA, et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2023;49:485-493.
Occupational fatigue (e.g., stress, physical fatigue) can have deleterious effects on patients, staff, and health systems. This article describes a conceptual framework to better understand the factors contributing to occupational fatigue and downstream implications (e.g., poor patient safety, employee burnout, lower retention, and higher turnover).
Aiken LH, Lasater KB, Sloane DM, et al. JAMA Health Forum. 2023;4:e231809.
While the association between clinician burnout and patient safety are not new, the COVID-19 pandemic brought this safety concern back to the forefront. In this study conducted at 60 US Magnet hospitals, nurses and physicians reported high levels of burnout and rated their hospital unfavorably on patient safety. Increased nurse staffing was the top recommendation to reduce burnout with less emphasis on wellness and resilience programs.
Ward CE, Taylor M, Keeney C, et al. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2023;27:263-268.
Weight-based calculation errors and lack of weight documentation can lead to medication errors in pediatric patients. This analysis of Maryland emergency medical services (EMS) data including children who received a weight-based medication found that weight documentation was associated with a small but significantly lower rate of medication dose errors, particularly among infants and for epinephrine and fentanyl doses.
… is unknown at the current time. … The Commentary … By Joy Chaudhry, PharmD, BCPS, BCCCP, Julie Chou BSN, RN, CNOR, … Health firstname.lastname@example.org … References … Boytim J, Ulrich B. Factors contributing to perioperative medication errors: a … . 2016;124(1):25-34. [ Free full text ] Litman R. How to prevent medication errors in the operating room? …
Halligan D, Janes G, Conner M, et al. J Patient Saf. 2023;19:143-150.
Reducing low-value tests and treatments has been a focus of patient safety efforts, but less attention has been focused on low-value patient safety practices (PSP). This study describes the concept of “safety clutter” and understanding which PSP are of low-value, ineffective, and could be discontinued. Frequently cited PSP included paperwork, duplication, and intentional rounding.
Cresham Fox S, Taylor N, Marufu TC, et al. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2023;2023:103363.
While many hospitals have rapid response teams (RRT) which can be activated by clinicians, only a few hospitals have also implemented programs which allow patients and families to activate RRT. This review identified 6 articles (5 interventions) with family-activated RRT in pediatric hospitals. The authors of the review conclude that family-activated RRT is a key component to family engagement and enhancing patient safety. Only one intervention was also available in a non-English language, which should be considered in future interventions.
Rodgers S, Taylor AC, Roberts SA, et al. PLoS Med. 2022;19:e1004133.
Previous research found that a pharmacist-led information technology intervention (PINCER) reduced dangerous prescribing (i.e., medication monitoring and drug-disease errors) among a subset of primary care practices in the United Kingdom (UK). This longitudinal analysis examined the impact of the PINCER intervention after implementation across a large proportion of general practices in one region in the UK. Researchers found the PINCER intervention decreased dangerous prescribing by 17% and 15% at 6-month and 12-month follow-ups, particularly among dangerous prescribing related to gastrointestinal bleeding.
Long COVID-19 can be challenging to diagnose. Using electronic health record (EHR) data from patients receiving care in the Department of Veterans Affairs, this qualitative study explored the clinical diagnosis and management of long COVID symptoms. Two themes emerged – (1) diagnostic uncertainty about whether symptoms were due to long COVID, particularly given the absence of specific clinical markers and (2) care fragmentation and poor care coordination of post-COVID-19 care processes.
Pitts S, Yang Y, Woodroof T, et al. J Patient Saf. 2022;18:e934-e937.
CancelRx is a health information tool designed to improve communication between electronic health record (EHR) systems and pharmacy dispensing software. This study found that CancelRx implementation eliminated the sale of electronically prescribed medications after discontinuation in the EHR, compared to prior to implementation. Researchers found that CancelRx did result in the unintentional cancellation of some prescriptions and they discuss the importance of situational awareness among providers and pharmacy staff to mitigate this issue.
Taylor DJ, Goodwin D. J Med Ethics. 2022;48:672-677.
Normalization of deviance describes a situation where individuals, teams or organizations accept a lower standard of performance until that lower standard becomes the “norm” and can threaten patient safety. This article describes five serious medical errors in obstetrics and highlights how normalization of deviance contributed to each event.
Sanchez C, Taylor M, Jones RM. Patient Safety. 2022;4:70-79.
Families and caregivers play an important role in patient safety. This study analyzed incident report data and found that behavior from families and caregivers visiting a patient increased the risk of patient harm in 36% of cases and decreased the risk of harm in the remaining 64% of cases. Certain visitor behaviors (such as moving the patient) increased patient harm, including falls and medication-related events. Other behaviors, such as communicating with healthcare staff, decreased patient harm.
Redley B, Taylor N, Hutchinson A. J Adv Nurs. 2022;78:3710-3720.
Nurses play a critical role in reducing preventable harm among inpatients. This cross-sectional survey of nurses working in general medicine wards identified both enabling factors (behavioral regulation, perceived capabilities, and environmental context/resources) and barriers (intentions, perceived consequences, optimism, and professional role) to implementing comprehensive harm prevention programs for older adult inpatients.
Meyer AND, Scott TMT, Singh H. JAMA Netw Open. 2022;5:e228568.
Delayed communication of abnormal test results can contribute to diagnostic and treatment delays, patient harm, and malpractice claims. The Department of Veterans Affairs specifies abnormal test results be communicated to the patient within seven days if treatment is required, and within 14 days if no treatment is required. In the first full year of the program, 71% of abnormal test results and 80% of normal test results were communicated to the patient within the specified timeframes. Performance varied by facility and type of test.
Giardina TD, Choi DT, Upadhyay DK, et al. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2022;29:1091-1100.
Most patients can now access their provider visit notes via online portals and many have reported mistakes such as diagnostic errors or missed allergies. This study asked patients who may be “at-risk” for diagnostic error about perceived concerns in their visit notes. Patients were more likely to report having concerns if they did not trust their provider and did not have a good feeling about the visit. Soliciting patient concerns may be one way to improve transparency regarding diagnostic errors and trust in providers.