The AHRQ PSNet Collection comprises an extensive selection of resources relevant to the patient safety community. These resources come in a variety of formats, including literature, research, tools, and Web sites. Resources are identified using the National Library of Medicine’s Medline database, various news and content aggregators, and the expertise of the AHRQ PSNet editorial and technical teams.
Appelbaum NP, Santen SA, Perera RA, et al. J Patient Saf. 2022;18:370-375.
Residents and trainees frequently report experiencing bullying and disrespectful behaviors in the workplace. This study explored the relationship between resident psychological safety, perceived organizational support, and humiliation. Results indicate resident perception of increased organizational support (e.g., help is available when they have a problem) reduces the negative impact of humiliation on their psychological safety.
Kim S, Appelbaum NP, Baker N, et al. J Healthc Qual. 2020;42:249-263.
This review summarizes studies of training programs targeting healthcare professionals’ speaking up skills. The authors found that most training programs were limited to a one-time training delivered to a single profession (i.e., limited to doctors or nurses). The majority of programs addressed legitimate power (i.e., social norms such as titles) but few addressed other types of power (e.g., reward or coercive power, personal resources) or the non-verbal (i.e., emotional) skills required in speaking-up behaviors.
Best JA, Kim S. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2019;50:355-361.
A key aspect of a robust safety culture is that all team members feel psychologically safe in difficult situations. This commentary describes the development and use of a speaking-up curriculum that focuses on communication skills, cultural expectations, cognitive restructuring techniques, and resilience strategies. The program successfully increased motivation and comfort of participants in sharing concerns in various clinical situations.
Appelbaum NP, Dow A, Mazmanian PE, et al. Med Edu. 2016;50:343-350.
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Clinical Learning Environment Review (CLER) program encourages resident participation in patient safety programs, including reporting errors and near misses. This survey found that perceived psychological safety was a critical predictor of residents' willingness to report events, highlighting the importance of an overall culture of safety in encouraging error reporting. A recent PSNet interview discussed the CLER program and its impact on medical education.