The AHRQ PSNet Collection comprises an extensive selection of resources relevant to the patient safety community. These resources come in a variety of formats, including literature, research, tools, and Web sites. Resources are identified using the National Library of Medicine’s Medline database, various news and content aggregators, and the expertise of the AHRQ PSNet editorial and technical teams.
Huynh J, Alim SA, Chan DC, et al. Ann Intern Med. 2023;Epub Oct 14.
Access to primary care is becoming more challenging, in part due to physicians leaving the field. Twenty-nine states have expanded nurse practitioner (NP) autonomy to increase access. This study compares potentially inappropriate prescribing practices between NPs and primary care physicians (PCP). In the study population, adults aged 65 and older, NPs and PCPs had nearly identical rates of potentially inappropriate prescribing. The authors encourage focusing on improving prescribing practices among all prescribers instead of working to limit prescribing to physicians.
Zimbro KS, Bridges C, Bunn S, et al. J Nurs Care Qual. 2023;Epub Oct 2.
Inpatient falls are a persistent patient safety concern. In this study, researchers analyzed electronic health record (EHR) data from a 13-hospital health care system to examine whether remote patient monitoring can reduce inpatient falls. Findings indicate that remote patient monitoring (when combined with standard fall precautions) can reduce the incidence of falls and fall-related injuries, as well as decrease fall-related expenditures.
Rao A, Heidemann LA, Hartley S, et al. Clin Teach. 2023;Epub Aug 26.
Accurate and complete clinical documentation is essential to high quality, safe healthcare. In this simulation study, senior medical residents responded to pages regarding sepsis or atrial fibrillation (phone encounter) and documented a brief note regarding the encounter afterwards (documentation encounter). The study found that written documentation following a clinical encounter included more important clinical information (e.g., ordering blood cultures for sepsis, placing a patient on telemetry) compared to what was discussed during the phone encounter.
Mehta SD, Congdon M, Phillips CA, et al. J Hosp Med. 2023;18:509-518.
Improving diagnosis in pediatrics is an ongoing patient safety focus. This retrospective study included 129 pediatric emergency transfer cases and examined the relationship between missed opportunity for improvement in diagnosis (MOID; determined using SaferDx) and patient outcomes. Researchers found that MOID occurred in 29% of emergency transfer cases and it was associated with higher risk of mortality and longer post-transfer length of stay.
Watterson TL, Steege LM, Mott DA, et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2023;49:485-493.
Occupational fatigue (e.g., stress, physical fatigue) can have deleterious effects on patients, staff, and health systems. This article describes a conceptual framework to better understand the factors contributing to occupational fatigue and downstream implications (e.g., poor patient safety, employee burnout, lower retention, and higher turnover).
Ariadne Labs, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health.
Communication and Resolution Programs (CRP) are a promising strategy for managing the aftermath of medical harm. This 18-month learning collaborative will help participants engage leadership, implement CRP processes, build patient partnerships and establish measurement approaches to gauge the success of CRP efforts. Applications for the 2023-2024 December start cohort will be accepted until October 27, 2023.
Congdon M, Rauch B, Carroll B, et al. Hosp Pediatr. 2023;13:563-571.
Diagnostic errors in pediatrics remain a significant focus of patient safety. This study uses two years of unplanned readmissions to a children’s hospital to identify missed opportunities for improving diagnosis (MOID). Clinician decision-making and diagnostic reasoning were identified as key factors for MOID. The authors recommend that future research include larger cohorts to identify populations and conditions at increased risk for MOID-related readmissions.
Vaughan-Malloy AM, Chan Yuen J, Sandora TJ. Am J Infect Control. 2023;51:514-519.
Hand hygiene adherence is an essential component of patient safety. Using the SEIPS 2.0 model, this study explored clinician perspectives about high reliability in hand hygiene. The 61 respondents identified several barriers associated with aspects of organizational culture, environment, tasks and tools, including frequently empty alcohol-based hand rub dispensers and challenges with the layout of patient care areas.
Schneider P, Lorenz A, Menegay MC, et al. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM. 2023;5:100912.
Reducing maternal morbidity and mortality continues to be a patient safety priority in the United States. The article describes the implementation of a quality improvement initiative in Ohio to improve outcomes for patients with a severe hypertensive event during pregnancy or postpartum. Among 29 participating hospitals between July 2020 and September 2021, the researchers identified sustained improvements in timely and appropriate treatment for severe hypertension, timely follow-up appointment after hospital discharge, and patient education about urgent maternal warning signs across both non-Hispanic Black and White pregnant or postpartum people.
Pugh S, Chan F, Han S, et al. J Nurs Adm. 2023;53:292-298.
The COVID-19 pandemic dramatically impacted the delivery of nursing care. This retrospective analysis examined the impact of a bedside checklist and nursing-led intervention bundle (“Nursing Back to Basics” or NB2B bundle) among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 at one academic hospital in New York City. The NB2B bundle, implemented with a bedside checklist, included five evidence-based interventions. Between March and April 2020, the NB2B intervention showed a 12% reduction in mortality due to COVID-19 compared with usual care.
Royce CS, Morgan HK, Baecher-Lind L, et al. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2023;228:369-381.
Racism and implicit biases can threaten the safety of care. The authors in this article outline how implicit bias can affect health professional trainees and impact patient care in obstetrics and gynecology, and outlines strategies to address implicit bias through bias awareness and management curricula, ensuring a supportive learning environment, and faculty development.
Morgan DJ, Malani PN, Diekema DJ. JAMA. 2023;329:1255-1256.
The effective use of resources through stewardship initiatives can support error reduction through focusing actions of care. This commentary discusses how diagnostic stewardship can enhance diagnostic testing behaviors across the diagnostic process.
Holland R, Bond CM, Alldred DP, et al. BMJ. 2023;380:e071883.
Careful medication management in long-term care residents is associated with improved hospital readmission rates and reduced fall rates. In the UK, pharmacist independent prescribers (PIP) can initiate, change, or monitor medications, and this cluster randomized controlled trial evaluated the effect of PIPs on fall rates. After six months of PIP involvement, fall rates (the primary outcome) were not statistically different than the usual care group, although drug burden was reduced.
Barrett AK, Sandbrink F, Mardian A, et al. J Gen Intern Med. 2022;37:4037-4046.
Opioid medication use is associated with an increased risk of adverse events; however research has shown sudden discontinuation of opioids is also associated with adverse events such as withdrawal and hospitalization. This before and after study evaluated the impact of the VA’s Opioid Safety Initiative (OSI) on characteristics and prescribing practices. Results indicate that length of tapering period increased, and mortality risk decreased following OSI implementation.
Hoot NR, Barbosa TJ, Chan HK, et al. J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open. 2022;3:e12849.
Previous research has suggested that increases in physician workloads can threaten patient safety. This retrospective study found that medical errors are higher among emergency medicine physicians with lower productivity, as measured by the number of patients seen per hour.
Ibrahim M, Szeto WY, Gutsche J, et al. Ann Thorac Surg. 2022;114:626-635.
Reports of poor care in the media or public reporting systems can serve as an impetus to overhauling hospitals or hospital units. After several unexpected deaths and a drop in several rating systems, this cardiac surgery department launched a comprehensive quality improvement review. This paper describes the major changes made in the department, including role clarity and minimizing variation in 24/7 staffing.
Liu SI, Shikar M, Gante E, et al. Crit Care Nurse. 2022;42:33-43.
Lack of communication between providers can contribute to failure to rescue. Following a series of deaths due in part to not identifying clinical deterioration in a timely manner and/or not escalating care, this surgical intensive care unit (SICU) implemented an interdisciplinary quality improvement intervention. The intervention consisted of educating nurses on conditions necessitating escalation, multidisciplinary rounds with night staff, and an escalation document in the electronic health record (EHR).
Girotra S, Jones PG, Peberdy MA, et al. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2022;15:e008901.
Rapid response teams (RRTs) have been implemented at hospitals worldwide, despite mixed results in their effectiveness. The aim of this study was to compare expected mortality rates with mortality rates following RRT implementation, adjusted for hospital case mix. Of 56 hospitals that participated in this project and had complete data, only four showed lower-than-expected mortality rates and two showed higher-than-expected mortality, suggesting RRT may not reduce mortality rates as much as earlier studies have reported.