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The PSNet Collection: All Content

The AHRQ PSNet Collection comprises an extensive selection of resources relevant to the patient safety community. These resources come in a variety of formats, including literature, research, tools, and Web sites. Resources are identified using the National Library of Medicine’s Medline database, various news and content aggregators, and the expertise of the AHRQ PSNet editorial and technical teams.

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Displaying 1 - 20 of 865 Results
Cresham Fox S, Taylor N, Marufu TC, et al. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2022;Epub Dec 3.
While many hospitals have rapid response teams (RRT) which can be activated by clinicians, only a few hospitals have also implemented programs which allow patients and families to activate RRT. This review identified 6 articles (5 interventions) with family-activated RRT in pediatric hospitals. The authors of the review conclude that family-activated RRT is a key component to family engagement and enhancing patient safety. Only one intervention was also available in a non-English language, which should be considered in future interventions.
Skead C, Thompson LH, Kuk H, et al. Crit Care Res Pract. 2022;2022:4815734.
After-hours and weekend admissions to the hospital and intensive care units (ICU) have been linked to poor outcomes. This retrospective analysis compared outcomes among adult patients with daytime versus nighttime ICU admissions at one large Canadian medical center in between 2011 and 2015. Researchers found that overall mortality, but not ICU mortality, was higher among daytime admissions.
Pun BT, Jun J, Tan A, et al. Am J Crit Care. 2022;31:443-451.
Team collaboration is an essential part of ensuring patient safety in acute care settings. This survey of care team members (including nurses, physicians, pharmacists, respiratory therapists, and rehabilitation therapists) assessed teamwork and collaboration across 68 intensive care units (ICUs). Teamwork and work environment were rated favorably but care coordination and meaningful recognition were rated least favorably.
Rosen A, Carter D, Applebaum JR, et al. J Patient Saf. 2022;18:e1219-e1225.
The COVID-19 pandemic had wide-ranging impacts on care delivery and patient safety. This study examined the relationship between critical care clinician experiences related to patient safety during the pandemic and COVID-19 caseloads during the pandemic. Findings suggest that as COVID-19 caseloads increased, clinicians were more likely to perceive care as less safe.
Kam AJ, Gonsalves CL, Nordlund SV, et al. BMC Emerg Med. 2022;22:152.
Debriefing after significant clinical events facilitates team-based communication, learning, and support. This study compared two post-resuscitation debriefing tools (Debriefing In Situ Conversation after Emergent Resuscitation Now [DISCERN] and Post-Code Pause [PCP]) following any intubation, resuscitation, or serious/unanticipated patient outcome in a children’s hospital. PCP was found to provide more emotional support and clinical learning, but there were no differences in the remaining categories.
Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK: Care Quality Commission; October 2022.
This website provides access to an annual report that summarizes National Health Service hospital and social care performance across a range of care quality metrics at both the trust and service level. The 2022 report found most facilities to be generally operating at a effective level and basic performance was found to be high. However the report found substantial gaps in specialties such as maternity care and recognized staffing challenges that impact access and quality.
Bagnasco A, Rossi S, Dasso N, et al. J Patient Saf. 2022;18:e903-e911.
Care left undone (also called missed care, unfinished care, and implicitly rationed care) is associated with lower perception of safety culture and increased adverse events. In this study, more than 2,200 pediatric nurses were asked about care tasks left undone in their most recent shift and a variety of environmental factors (e.g., perception of their work environment, risk of burnout). The most frequently omitted task was comfort/talk with patients, and the least frequently omitted task was pain management.
WebM&M Case August 31, 2022

A 2-year-old girl presented to her pediatrician with a cough, runny nose, low grade fever and fatigue; a nasal swab for SARS-CoV-2 and influenza was negative and lung sounds were clear. The patient developed a fever and labored breathing and was taken to the Emergency Department (ED) before being admitted to the hospital. She developed respiratory distress and clinically worsened over time until she developed respiratory failure requiring air transportation to the pediatric intensive care unit at a children’s hospital.

Dionisi S, Giannetta N, Liquori G, et al. Healthcare (Basel). 2022;10:1221.
Medication errors are a global patient safety concern, particularly in high-risk areas like the intensive care unit. This umbrella review synthesizes medication interventions into two areas: systems (e.g., smart pumps) and processes (e.g., medication review). The authors highlight the importance of using multiple strategies when working to improve medication safety in the ICU.
McDade JE, Olszewski AE, Qu P, et al. Front Pediatr. 2022;10:872060.
Language barriers can place patients at increased risk for adverse events and near misses. This retrospective cohort study found that rapid response team events for non-English speaking pediatric patients are more likely to result in transfer to the intensive care unit compared to English-speaking patients. However, researchers also found that increased use of interpreters can contribute to improved outcomes.  
Levkovich BJ, Orosz J, Bingham G, et al. BMJ Qual Saf. 2022;Epub Jul 5.
Rapid response teams, also known as medical emergency teams (MET), are activated when a patient demonstrates signs of clinical deterioration to prevent transfer to intensive care, cardiac arrest, and death. MET activations were prospectively reviewed at two Australian hospitals to determine the proportion of activations due to medication-related harms and assess the preventability of the activation. 23% of MET activations were medication-related, and 63% of those were considered preventable. Most preventable activations were patients with hypertension, and prevention strategies should focus on these patients.
Wooldridge AR, Carayon P, Hoonakker PLT, et al. Hum Factors. 2022;Epub Jun 5.
Handoffs between inpatient care settings represent a vulnerable time for patients. This qualitative study explores how team cognition occurs during care transitions and interprofessional handoffs between inpatient settings and the influence of sociotechnical systems, such as communication workflows or electronic heath record-based interfaces) influence team cognition. Participants highlighted how interprofessional handoffs can both enhance (e.g., information exchange) and hinder (e.g., logistic challenges and imprecise communication) team cognition.
Leapfrog Group.
This website offers resources related to the Leapfrog Hospital Survey investigating hospitals' progress in implementing specific patient safety practices. Updates to the survey include increased time allotted to complete computerized provider order entry evaluation, staffing of critical care physicians on intensive care units, and use of tools to measure safety culture. Reports discussing the results are segmented into specific areas of focus such as health care-associated infections and medication errors. 
Woods-Hill CZ, Colantuoni EA, Koontz DW, et al. JAMA Pediatr. 2022;176:690-698.
Stewardship interventions seek to optimize use of healthcare services, such as diagnostic tests or antibiotics. This article reports findings from a 14-site multidisciplinary collaborative evaluating pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) blood culture practices before and after implementation of a diagnostic stewardship intervention. Researchers found that rates of blood cultures, broad-spectrum antibiotic use, and central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSI) were reduced postintervention.
Trbovich PL, Tomasi JN, Kolodzey L, et al. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2022;23:151-159.
Intensive care units (ICU) are high-risk environments. Based on direct observations, these researchers identified 226 latent safety threats affecting routine care activities in pediatric ICUs. Findings indicate that threats persist regardless of whether individuals comply with or deviate from policies and protocols, suggesting the need for targeted interventions beyond reinforcing compliance.

Molefe A, Hung L, Hayes K, et al. Rockville MD: Agency for healthcare Research and Quality; 2022. AHRQ Publication No. 17(22)-0019.

Central line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are a persistent challenge for health care safety. This report shares the results of a 6-cohort initiative to reduce CLABSI and/or CAUTI infection rates in adult critical care. Recommendations for collaborative implementation success are included.
Acorda DE, Bracken J, Abela K, et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2022;48:196-204.
Rapid response (RR) systems are used to improve clinical outcomes and prevent transfer to ICU of patients demonstrating signs of rapid deterioration. To evaluate its RR system, one hospital’s pediatric department reviewed all REACT (Rapid Escalation After Critical Transfer) events (i.e., cardiopulmonary arrest and/or ventilation and/or hemodynamic support) which occurred within 24 hours of the RR. These reviews identified opportunities for systemwide improvements. 

Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; April 2022.

Healthcare-associated infections can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Developed by AHRQ, this customizable, educational toolkit uses the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP) and other evidence-based practices to provide clinical and cultural guidance to support practice changes to prevent and reduce central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) rates in intensive care units (ICUs). Sections of the kit include items such an action plan template, implementation playbook, and team interaction aids.
Lohmeyer Q, Schiess C, Wendel Garcia PD, et al. BMJ Qual Saf. 2022;32:26-33.
Tall Man lettering (TML) is a recommended strategy to reduce look-alike or sound-alike medication errors. This simulation study used eye tracking to investigate how of ‘tall man lettering’ impacts medication administration tasks. The researchers found that TML of prelabeled syringes led to a significant decrease in misidentified syringes and improved visual attention.