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The PSNet Collection: All Content

The AHRQ PSNet Collection comprises an extensive selection of resources relevant to the patient safety community. These resources come in a variety of formats, including literature, research, tools, and Web sites. Resources are identified using the National Library of Medicine’s Medline database, various news and content aggregators, and the expertise of the AHRQ PSNet editorial and technical teams.

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Displaying 1 - 20 of 136 Results
Plunkett A, Plunkett E. Paediatr Anaesth. 2022;32:1223-1229.
Safety-I focuses on identifying factors that contribute to incidents or errors. Safety-II seeks to understand and learn from the many cases where things go right, including ordinary events, and emphasizes adjustments and adaptations to achieve safe outcomes. This commentary describes Safety-II and complementary positive strategies of patient safety, such as exnovation, appreciative inquiry, learning from excellence, and positive deviance.
Bender JA, Kulju S, Soncrant C. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2022;48:326-334.
Healthcare organizations use multiple proactive and reactive methods of investigating and preventing adverse events. This study combined proactive and reactive risk assessments into a Combined Proactive Risk Assessment (CPRA) to identify risks not detected by one method on its own. The four steps of CPRA are illustrated using the example of outpatient blood draws in the Veterans Health Administration.
Patient Safety Primer March 30, 2022

This primer provides a broad overview of three widely used tools for investigating and responding to patient safety events and near misses. Tools covered in this primer are incident reporting systems, Root Cause Analysis (RCA), and Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA). These tools have been used in high-risk industries and occupations such as aviation, manufacturing, nuclear power, and the military and have been adapted for use in enhancing patient safety in healthcare settings over the past two decades.

Schulman PR. J Contingencies Crisis Manage. 2022;30:92-101.
High reliability organizations (HROs) are those that operate in highly complex domains, such as aviation, with no or very few significant errors. This commentary describes the relationship between error and uncertainty in HROs using the increased uncertainties brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic as an example.
Gibney BT, Roberts JM, D'Ortenzio RM, et al. RadioGraphics. 2021;41:2111-2126.
Hospitals are increasingly creating and updating their emergency disaster response plans. This guide assists hospital executives, quality & safety professionals, and risk managers by assessing potential hazards or failures in radiology departments in the event of disaster. Disaster planning tools, checklists, and other recommendations are described.  
Holmes J, Chipman M, Barbour T, et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2022;48:12-24.
Air medical transport carries unique patient safety risks. In this study, researchers used simulation training and healthcare failure mode and effect analysis (HFMEA) to identify latent safety threats related to patient transport via helicopter. This approach identified 31 latent safety threats (18 were deemed critical) related to care coordination, facilities, equipment, and devices.
Weber L, Schulze I, Jaehde U. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2022;18:3386-3393.
Chemotherapy administration errors can result in serious patient harm. Using failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), researchers identified potential failures related to the medication process for intravenous chemotherapy. Common failures included incorrect patient information, non-standardized chemotherapy protocols, and problems related to supportive therapy.
Pueyo-López C, Sánchez-Cuervo M, Vélez-Díaz-Pallarés M, et al. J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2021;27:1588-1595.
Researchers in this study used healthcare failure mode and effect analysis (HFMEA) to identify and reduce errors during chemotherapy preparation. Nine potential failure modes were identified – wrong label, drug, dose, solvent, or volume; non-sterile preparation; incomplete control; improper packaging or labeling, and; break or spill – and the potential causes and effects. Potential approaches to reduce these failure modes include updating the Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), implementing a bar code system, and using a weight-based control system.
Baughman AW, Triantafylidis LK, O'Neil N, et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2021;47:646-653.
Medication reconciliation is the process of reviewing a patient’s medication list for discrepancies and safety. Patients in nursing homes are at increased risk for medication discrepancies due to complexity of care and frequent transitions of care. By using Healthcare Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), researchers uncovered several factors that contribute to medication discrepancies. Interventions to improve medication safety can be targeted to one or more of the contributing factors.
Leeftink AG, Visser J, de Laat JM, et al. Ergonomics. 2021:1-11.
Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is widely used to identify latent safety hazards. The authors of this study proposed combining healthcare failure mode and effect analysis (HFMEA) with computer simulation (HFMEA-CS) for prospective risk analysis of complex and potentially harmful processes. Use of HFMEA-CS to analyze medication processes during admission and discharge for patients with a rare adrenal tumor led to a reduction in drug delivery and system errors, as well as increased drug adherence.
Institute for Safe Medication Practices.
These educational programs with the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) are for clinicians who wish to expand their practical knowledge of medication error prevention. The application process for the 2022-2023 fellowships has closed.
Paradis KC, Naheedy KW, Matuszak MM, et al. Pract Radiat Oncol. 2020;11:e106-e113.
Assessing risk and learning from adverse events are core components of patient safety improvement. The authors propose a method which leverages a radiation oncology incident learning system with a simplified failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) to analyze safety events and monitor the success of workflow changes to improve patient safety and address high-risk errors.
Tiao C-H, Tsai L-C, Chen L-C, et al. Qual Manag Health Care. 2021;30:61-68.
Hospitals have needed to adapt workflow processes to optimize infection control in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. This article describes the use of healthcare failure mode and effects analysis (HFMEA) 4-step model to implement preventive risk assessment and workflow management for high-risk medical procedures during the pandemic and prevention of nosocomial infections.   
Kobo-Greenhut A, Sharlin O, Adler Y, et al. Int J Qual Health Care. 2021;33:mzaa151.
Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is used to asses risk in various heath care processes. This study found that an algorithmic prediction of failure modes in healthcare (APFMH) is more effective in identifying hazards and uses fewer resources (time and human resource investment) than traditional FMEA.

Phipps D, Ashour A, Riste L, et al. The Pharmaceutical Journal. 2020;305(7943, 7944). November 10, December 1, 2020.

Dispensing mistakes are a common contributor to preventable adverse events in community pharmacies. Part 1 of this two-part series discusses factors that contribute to dispensing errors and summarizes methods for managing risks stemming from missteps. Part 2 focuses on preventing situations that enable errors and the role pharmacists have in minimizing dispensing errors in daily practice.
Procaccini D, Rapaport R, Petty BG, et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2020;46:706-714.
The use of PRN (“as needed”) medications is a common source of medication errors. The authors describe the implementation of staff education and a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) order set (with predefined PRN orders), which led to increased compliance with Joint Commission medication management standards. The related editorial discusses how investment in human factors and ergonomics can contribute to healthcare quality and safety improvements.
Levy N, Zucco L, Ehrlichman RJ, et al. Anesthesiology. 2020;133:985-996.
This article describes the experience of one hospital in eastern Massachusetts implementing rapid response capabilities in an innovative, hybrid acute care-intensive care unit. Health system leadership used failure modes and effect analysis, process mapping, and on-site walkthroughs to identify potential hazards and opportunities for risk mitigation, as well as in situ simulation drills to facilitate team training.
Oakbrook Terrace, IL: Joint Commission Resources; 2020. ISBN: 9781635851618.
Root cause analysis has been widely adopted as a strategy to investigate events, despite questions regarding its effectiveness in health care. This revised pubication provides information about updated approaches to root cause analysis with an emphasis on idenitification of causal and contributing factors. It highlights the use of failure mode and effects analays as a complementary sentinel event examination strategy that enables design of proactive and reactive improvements.
Vidrine R, Zackoff M, Paff Z, et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2020;46:299-307.
Early recognition and treatment of sepsis is a critical safety issue. The authors of this study aimed to reduce the frequency of delayed sepsis recognition in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) through the use of an automated clinical decision support tool (CDS) prompting multidisciplinary sepsis huddles. After a two-year period, the average number of days between episodes of delayed sepsis recognition improved from one episode every 9 days to one every 28 days, and the median time to antibiotics decreased from 1.53 hours to 1.05 hours, representing a significant reduction.
Gurses AP, Tschudy MM, McGrath-Morrow S, et al. J Patient Saf Risk Manag. 2020;25:49-54.
This commentary describes how human factors and ergonomics can contribute to the COVID-19 pandemic response, using the example of workflow redesigns in a pediatric ambulatory care clinic.  The authors discuss Just-in-time (JIT) training, adapting workflow processes, identifying potential failure modes and safety hazards, and revisions to protocols and processes to provide safe care to patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.