The AHRQ PSNet Collection comprises an extensive selection of resources relevant to the patient safety community. These resources come in a variety of formats, including literature, research, tools, and Web sites. Resources are identified using the National Library of Medicine’s Medline database, various news and content aggregators, and the expertise of the AHRQ PSNet editorial and technical teams.
Woodier N, Burnett C, Moppett I. J Patient Saf. 2022;19:42-47.
Reporting and learning from adverse events is a core patient safety activity. Findings from this scoping review indicate limited evidence demonstrating that reporting and learning from near-miss events improves patient safety. The authors suggest that future research further explore this relationship and establish the effectiveness of system-level actions to avoid near misses.
Dillner P, Eggenschwiler LC, Rutjes AWS, et al. BMJ Qual Saf. 2022;Epub Dec 26.
Retrospective error detection methods, such as trigger tools, are widely used to uncover the incidence and characteristics of adverse events (AE) in hospitalized children. This review sought AEs identified by three trigger tools: Global Trigger Tool (GTT), the Trigger Tool (TT) or the Harvard Medical Practice Study (HMPS) method. Results from the trigger tools were widely variable, similar to an earlier review in adult acute care, and suggest the need for strengthening reporting standards.
Kelly D, Koay A, Mineva G, et al. Public Health. 2022;214:50-60.
Natural disasters and other public health emergencies (PHE), such as the COVID-19 pandemic, can dramatically change the delivery of healthcare. This scoping review identified considerable research examining the relationship between public health emergencies and disruptions to personal medication practices (e.g., self-altering medication regimens, access barriers, changing prescribing providers) and subsequent medication-related harm.
Dixit RA, Boxley CL, Samuel S, et al. J Patient Saf. 2023;19:e25-e30.
Electronic health records (EHR) may have unintended negative consequences on patient safety. This review identified 11 articles focused on the relationship between EHR use and diagnostic error. EHR issues fell into three general areas: information gathering, medical decision-making, and plan implementation and communication. The majority of issues were a related to providers’ cognitive processing, revealing an important area of research and quality improvement.
Świtalski J, Wnuk K, Tatara T, et al. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022;19:15354.
Improving patient safety in long-term care facilities is an ongoing challenge. This systematic review identified three types of interventions that can improve safety in long-term care facilities – (1) promoting safety culture, (2) reducing occupational stress and burnout, and (3) increasing medication safety.
Greig PR, Zolger D, Onwochei DN, et al. Anaesthesia. 2022;Epub Dec 14.
Cognitive aids, such as checklists and decision aids, can reduce omissions in care and improve patient safety. This systematic review including 13 randomized trials found that cognitive aids in clinical emergencies reduced the incidence of missed care steps (from 43% to 11%) and medical errors, and improved teamwork, non-technical, and conflict resolution scores.
Cresham Fox S, Taylor N, Marufu TC, et al. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2022;Epub Dec 3.
While many hospitals have rapid response teams (RRT) which can be activated by clinicians, only a few hospitals have also implemented programs which allow patients and families to activate RRT. This review identified 6 articles (5 interventions) with family-activated RRT in pediatric hospitals. The authors of the review conclude that family-activated RRT is a key component to family engagement and enhancing patient safety. Only one intervention was also available in a non-English language, which should be considered in future interventions.
Gleeson LL, Clyne B, Barlow JW, et al. Int J Pharm Pract. 2023;Epub Jan 3.
Remote delivery of care, such as telehealth and e-prescribing, increased sharply at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. This rapid review was conducted to determine the types and frequency of medication safety incidents associated with remote delivery of primary care prior to the pandemic. Fifteen articles were identified covering medication safety and e-prescribing; none of these studies associated medication safety and telehealth.
Goekcimen K, Schwendimann R, Pfeiffer Y, et al. J Patient Saf. 2023;19:e1-e8.
Incident reporting systems are common tools to detect patient safety hazards. This systematic review synthesized evidence from 41 studies using incident reporting system data to identify and characterize critical incidents. Medication-related incidents and incidents due to “active failures” were the most commonly reported events. The authors observe that only one in three studies reported on corrective actions due to the incidents, highlighting the need to emphasize the importance of learning from errors.
Hashemian SM, Triantis K. Safety Sci. 2023;159:106045.
Production pressures can inhibit effective decision-making and threaten patient safety. This systematic review examines the effects of production pressures in sociotechnical systems and discusses the need for future research to develop and implement systems to monitor and control production pressures.
Thusini S’thembile, Milenova M, Nahabedian N, et al. BMC Health Serv Res. 2022;22:1492.
Health systems often consider return on investment (ROI) when considering implementation of quality improvement and patient safety interventions (i.e., costs saved by preventing medical errors or improving quality of care). This systematic review explored how ROI concepts have been used in studies assessing large-scale quality improvement programs.
Sheikh A, Coleman JJ, Chuter A, et al. Programme Grants Appl Res. 2022;10:1-196.
Electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) is an established medication error reduction mechanism. This review analyzed experiences in the United Kingdom to understand strengths and weaknesses in e-prescribing. The work concluded that e-prescribing did improve safety in the UK and that the implementation and use of the system was a complex endeavor. The effort produced an accompanying toolkit to assist organizations in e-prescribing system decision making.
Hailu EM, Maddali SR, Snowden JM, et al. Health Place. 2022;78:102923.
Racial and ethnic health disparities are receiving increased attention, and yet structural racism continues to negatively impact communities of color. This review identified only six papers studying the impact of structural racism on severe maternal morbidity (SMM). Despite heterogeneity in measures and outcomes, the studies all demonstrated a link between structural racism and SMM; additional research is required.
Alqahtani N. J Eval Clin Pract. 2022;28:1037-1049.
Insulin-related errors result in nearly 100,000 emergency department visits annually in the United States, with 30% resulting in hospitalization. It is unclear if published guidelines and strategies for reducing these errors have been effective; therefore, this review sought to identify interventions to reduce insulin errors in home and hospital settings. Three themes emerged: technology, education, and policy. Understanding these findings may help clinicians and patients to decrease insulin administration errors and help researchers develop and evaluate future studies targeting insulin-related errors.
Henry Basil J, Premakumar CM, Mhd Ali A, et al. Drug Saf. 2022;45:1457-1476.
Medication administration errors (MAEs) are thought to be common in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). This systematic review estimated that the pooled prevalence of MAEs among patients in NICU settings ranged from 59% to 65%. The review highlights both active failures (e.g., similar drug packaging or names) and latent failures (e.g., noisy environments, inaccurate verbal or written orders) contributing to MAEs.
Patient and caregiver engagement in medical treatment can promote safety. This scoping review explored the qualitive research regarding how patients and caregivers engage in safety during cancer treatment. Four themes were identified – patient perception and involvement in safety; patient engagement in their care; safety as a collective responsibility; and the importance of caregivers relative to the amount of support they receive.
Wani MM, Gilbert JHV, Mohammed CA, et al. J Patient Saf. 2022;18:e1150-e1159.
The WHO surgical safety checklist has been implemented in healthcare systems around the world. This scoping review identified five categories of barriers to successful implementation of the WHO checklist (organizational-, checklist-, technical-, and implementation barriers, as well as individual differences). The authors outline recommendations for researchers, hospital administrators, and operating room personnel to improve checklist implementation.
Averill P, Vincent CA, Reen G, et al. Health Expect. 2022;Epub Nov 12.
Patient safety research on inpatient psychiatric care is expanding, but less is known about outpatient mental health patient safety. This review of safety in community-based mental health services revealed several challenges, including defining preventable safety events. Additionally, safety research has focused on harm caused by the patient instead of harm caused by mental health services, such as delays in access or diagnosis.
Kim K-A, Lee J, Kim D, et al. BMC Health Serv Res. 2022;22:1376.
Safety culture has been shown to be associated with nursing home quality indicators such as discharge to community and injuries related to falls and catheters. Numerous surveys exist to measure safety culture. This review identified seven measurement tools, and the most frequently used tool was the Nursing Home Survey on Patient Safety Culture. The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture, Safety Attitudes Questionnaire, and Modified Stanford Patient Safety Culture Survey Instrument were also used.
Tablet-splitting may introduce patient safety risks, such as unpredictable dosing. This systematic review and qualitative synthesis did not identify substantive evidence to support tablet-splitting concerns, with the exception of sustained-release tablets and use by older adults who may struggle to split tablets due to physical limitations.
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