The AHRQ PSNet Collection comprises an extensive selection of resources relevant to the patient safety community. These resources come in a variety of formats, including literature, research, tools, and Web sites. Resources are identified using the National Library of Medicine’s Medline database, various news and content aggregators, and the expertise of the AHRQ PSNet editorial and technical teams.
Rabbani N, Pageler NM, Hoffman JM, et al. Appl Clin Inform. 2023;14:521-527.
Implementation of or upgrades to new electronic health records (EHR) is a complex process which sometimes results in unforeseen negative consequences. This study examines hospital-acquired conditions (HACs) and care bundle compliance rates at 27 pediatric hospitals before, during, and after implementation or upgrade of EHR systems. Contrary to previous studies, no significant differences were found in either HAC or bundle compliance rates.
Rosa R, Sposato K, Abbo LM. AORN J. 2023;117:300-311.
Preventing surgical site infections remains a persistent challenge to patient safety. This article outlines strategies to prevent surgical site infections during the perioperative period and the roles that infection surveillance, infection prevention bundles, and a culture of safety play a substantial role in decreasing the rate of surgical site infections.
Vaughan-Malloy AM, Chan Yuen J, Sandora TJ. Am J Infect Control. 2023;51:514-519.
Hand hygiene adherence is an essential component of patient safety. Using the SEIPS 2.0 model, this study explored clinician perspectives about high reliability in hand hygiene. The 61 respondents identified several barriers associated with aspects of organizational culture, environment, tasks and tools, including frequently empty alcohol-based hand rub dispensers and challenges with the layout of patient care areas.
Pfeiffer Y, Atkinson A, Maag J, et al. J Patient Saf. 2023;19:264-270.
Surgical site infections (SSI) are a common, but preventable, complication following surgery. This study sought to determine the association of commitment to, knowledge of, and social norms surrounding SSI prevention efforts and safety climate strength and level. Based on responses from nearly 2,800 operating room personnel in Sweden, only commitment and social norms were associated with safety climate level. None were associated with safety climate strength.
Seidelman JL, Mantyh CR, Anderson DJ. JAMA. 2023;329:244-252.
Surgical site infections (SSIs) remain a significant cause of preventable post-operative morbidity and mortality. This narrative review summarizes modifiable and nonmodifiable patient-related factors. It also evaluates modifiable operation-related factors associated with surgical site infections, and highlights six pre-, intra-, and postoperative strategies to reduce surgical site infections, including use of the WHO surgical safety checklist.
Marsh KM, Turrentine FE, Schenk WG, et al. Ann Surg. 2022;276:e347-e352.
The perioperative period represents a vulnerable time for patients. This retrospective review of patients undergoing surgery at one hospital over a one-year period concluded that medical errors (including, but not limited to, technical errors, diagnostic errors, system errors, and errors of omission) were strongly associated with postoperative morbidity.
Parker H, Frost J, Day J, et al. PLoS ONE. 2022;17:e0271454.
Prophylactic antimicrobials are frequently prescribed for surgical patients despite the risks of antimicrobial overuse (e.g., resistance). This review summarizes how and why antimicrobials continue to be prescribed in surgical settings despite evidence of overuse. Eight overarching concepts were identified: hierarchy; fear drives action; deprioritized; convention trumps evidence; complex judgments; discontinuity of care; team dynamics; and practice environment.
Farnborough, UK; Healthcare Safety Investigation Branch; May 26, 2022.
Surgical equipment sterilization can be hampered by equipment design, production pressures, process complexity and policy misalignment. This report examines a case of unclean surgical instrument use. It recommends external sterile service assessment and competency review as steps toward improving the reliability of instrument decontamination processes in the National Health Service.
Massart N, Mansour A, Ross JT, et al. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2022;163:2131-2140.e3.
Surgical site infections and other postoperative healthcare-acquired infections (HAIs) can lead to significant patient morbidity and mortality. This retrospective study examined the relationship between HAIs after cardiac surgery and postoperative inpatient mortality. Among 8,853 patients undergoing cardiac surgery in one academic hospital in France, 4.2% developed an HAI after surgery. When patients developing an HAI were matched with patients who did not, the inpatient mortality rate was significantly greater among patients with HAIs (15.4% vs. 5.7%).
Tham N, Fazio T, Johnson D, et al. World J Surg. 2022;46:1249-1258.
The COVID-19 pandemic led to changes in infection control and prevention measures to limit nosocomial spread. This retrospective cohort study found that escalations in infection prevention and control practices due to the COVID-19 pandemic did not affect the incidence of other hospital-acquired infections among surgical patients at one Australian hospital. The authors posit that this may be due to high compliance with existing infection prevention and control practices pre-pandemic.
Forrester JD, Maggio PM, Tennakoon L. J Patient Saf. 2022;18:e477-e479.
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) result in poorer patient outcomes and increased costs. The 2016 national data set of five common HAIs (surgical site infections, catheter- and line-associated bloodstream infections, catheter-associate urinary tract infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and Clostridioides difficile) was analyzed to create an estimated national cost. Clostridioides difficile was the most frequently reported; Clostridioides difficile and surgical site infections accounted for 79% of costs.
Gillespie BM, Harbeck EL, Rattray M, et al. Int J Surg. 2021;95:106136.
Surgical site infections (SSI) are a common, yet largely preventable, complication of surgery which can result in increased length of stay and hospital readmission. In this review of 57 studies, the cumulative incidence of SSI was 11% in adult general surgical patients and was associated with increased length of stay (with variation by types of surgery).
This article describes the development and validation of a decision support model to support healthcare leadership when prioritizing quality improvement initiatives related to four common healthcare-associated infections.
Sood N, Lee RE, To JK, et al. Birth. 2022;49:141-146.
Cesarean delivery can contribute to increased maternal morbidity. This retrospective study found that the introduction of a hospital-wide perioperative bundle significantly reduced surgical site infection rates. The perioperative bundle consisted of five elements (1) an antibiotic protocol, (2) preoperative warming and intraoperative maintenance of normal temperature, (3) standardized surgical preparation for each patient, (4) use of standardized fascial closure trays, and (5) standardized intraoperative application of wound dressing.
Weiner-Lastinger LM, Pattabiraman V, Konnor RY, et al. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2022;43:12-25.
Using data reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network, this study identified significant increases in the incidence of healthcare-associated infections from 2019 to 2020. The authors conclude that these findings suggest a need to return to conventional infection control and prevention practices and prepare for future pandemics.
Velmahos CS, Kokoroskos N, Tarabanis C, et al. World J Surg. 2021;45:690-696.
The authors retrospectively reviewed records for 150 patients undergoing emergency surgery who experienced a preventable complication and/or death. The most common preventable complication was surgical site infections. The majority of complications were attributed to personal performance (technical or judgement issues) and a small proportion (3%) were attributed to systemic issues, such as poor communication or inadequate protocols.
Sweet W, Snyder D, Raymond M. J Healthc Risk Manage. 2020.
This article describes one health system’s experience implementing an infection prevention program into risk management in an outpatient setting. Over a two-year period post-implementation, the system identified and corrected high-risk practices, increased compliance to device guidance, increased efficiency with the use of central sterile processing departments, and developed a staff competency training structure.
Dieplinger B, Egger M, Jezek C, et al. Am J Infect Control. 2020;48:386-390.
This observational study enrolled 2,576 women undergoing cesarean delivery at a single tertiary care hospital over a five-year period to evaluate the impact of an evidence-based bundle on surgical site infections. The comprehensive and multidisciplinary bundle included preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative actions. Implementation of the bundle resulted in a 60% reduction in the risk of surgical site infections, from 1.5% in the preintervention period to 0.56% after implementation.
Health Care-Associated Infections. APSF Newsletter. October 2019;34:29-56.
Surgical patients are at increased risk for harm due to healthcare associated infection. This special issue explores the anesthesiologist's role in infection prevention and the importance of emphasizing hand hygiene and disinfection efforts in the perioperative environment.