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Bryant A. UpToDate. September 13, 2021.

Implicit bias is progressively being discussed as a detractor to safe health care by fostering racial and ethnic inequities. This review examines the history of health inequities at the patient, provider, health care system, and cultural levels in obstetric and gynecologic care. It shares actions documented in the evidence base for application in health care to reduce the impact of implicit bias, with an eye toward maternal care
Marr R, Goyal A, Quinn M, et al. BMC Health Serv Res. 2021;21(1):1330.
Many hospitals are implementing programs to support clinicians involved in adverse events (‘second victims’). Researchers interviewed 12 representatives of second victim programs in the United States about the experiences of their programs. The article discusses representative feedback regarding the importance of identifying a need for second victim programs and services, perceived challenges to program success, structural changes after program implementation, and insights for success.   
Gampetro PJ, Segvich JP, Hughes AM, et al. J Pediatr Nurs. 2021;63:20-27.
Communicating and reporting patient safety incidents relies on a robust safety culture wherein health care providers feel supported, not blamed, for errors. Using pediatric registered nurses’ responses from the 2016 and 2018 Hospital Survey on Patient Culture, researchers explored (1) associations between the communication of RNs within their teams and the frequency that they reported safety events; (2) associations between RNs’ communication within their health care teams and their perceptions of safety within the hospital unit; and (3) whether RNs’ communication had improved from 2016 to 2018.
Saliba R, Karam-Sarkis D, Zahar J-R, et al. J Hosp Infect. 2022;119:54-63.
Patient isolation for infection prevention and control may result in unintended consequences. This systematic review examined adverse physical and psychosocial events associated with patient isolation. A meta-analysis of seven observational studies showed no adverse events related to clinical care or patient experience with isolation.
Dixon-Woods M, Aveling EL, Campbell A, et al. J Health Serv Res Policy. 2022;Epub Jan 3.
A key aspect of patient safety culture is the perception that all team members should speak up about safety concerns. In this study of 165 frontline and senior leader participants, deciding to report a safety event (referred to as a “voiceable concern”) is influenced by four factors: certainty that something is wrong and is an occasion for voice; system versus conduct concerns, forgivability, and normalization. Organizational culture and context effect whether an incident is considered a voiceable concern.
FitzGerald C, Hurst S. BMC Med Ethics. 2017;18(1):19.
Healthcare provider implicit bias can lead to inequitable care delivery and poor patient outcomes. This review identified 42 articles about healthcare professional implicit biases, including gender, race, ethnicity, and age. Biases were detected in provider attitudes, treatment decisions, and diagnosis.
Noor Arzahan IS, Ismail Z, Yasin SM. Safety Sci. 2022;147:105624.
A culture of safety is a key component to successful patient safety initiatives. This systematic review explored the relationship between safety culture and safety climate dimensions and safety performance measures. The most common dimensions used to assess this relationship were the involvement of leadership, safety resources, risk management and communication, safety rules and procedures, and involvement of healthcare workers.

Dean J, Subbe C, eds. Future Healthc J. 2021;8(3):e559-e618.

Full realization of the patient voice as a resource for safety is challenging. This special section provides global perspectives examining cultural, organizational, and system-focused opportunities to fully use patient knowledge in improvement initiatives.
Gandhi TK. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2022;48(1):61-64.
Families and caregivers play an important role in ensuring patient safety. At the start of the COVID-19 pandemic and, to a lesser extent, during surges, family and caregiver visitation was severely restricted. This commentary advocates reassessing risks and benefits of restricted visitation, both during the pandemic and beyond.
Winning AM, Merandi J, Rausch JR, et al. J Patient Saf. 2021;17(8):531-540.
Healthcare professionals involved in a medical error often experience psychological distress. This article describes the validation of a revised version of the Second Victim Experience and Support Tool (SVEST-R), which was expanded to include measures of resilience and desired forms of support.
De Angulo NR, Penwill N, Pathak PR, et al. Hosp Pediatr. 2021;Epub Dec 24.
This study explored administrator, physician, nurse, and caregiver perceptions of safety in pediatric inpatient care during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants reported changes in workflows, discharge and transfer process, patient and family engagement, and hospital operations.
Institute for Healthcare Improvement. April 6 - June 15, 2022.
Burnout among health care workers negatively affects system improvement. This webinar series will highlight strategies to establish a healthy work environment that strengthens teamwork, staff engagement, and resilience. Instructors include Dr. Donald Berwick and Derek Feeley.
Fontil V, Pacca L, Bellows BK, et al. JAMA Cardiol. 2021;Epub Dec 9.
Racial and ethnic inequities are increasingly being linked to health disparities. This study of more than 16,000 patients explored the association between race and ethnicity and blood pressure control. Findings suggest racial and ethnic inequities in treatment intensification may be associated with more than 20% of observed racial or ethnic disparities in blood pressure control.
Wallis CJD, Jerath A, Coburn N, et al. JAMA Surg. 2021;Epub Dec 9.
Gender, racial, and ethnic disparities in healthcare can adversely impact patient safety and lead to poor outcomes. This retrospective study examined surgeon-patient sex discordance and perioperative outcomes among adult patients in Ontario, Canada, undergoing common elective or emergent surgical procedures from 2007 to 2019. Among 1.3 million patients, sex discordance between surgeon and patient was associated with a significant increased likelihood of adverse perioperative outcomes, including death. Subgroup analyses indicate that this relationship is driven by worse outcomes among female patients treated by male surgeons.
Draus C, Mianecki TB, Musgrove H, et al. J Nurs Care Qual. 2021;Epub Nov 15.
“Second victims” are healthcare providers who experience negative feelings in their personal or professional lives after being involved in unanticipated adverse patient events. One hundred and fifty-nine nurses at one American hospital reported being a second victim and experiencing psychological and/or physical distress following the incident.
Yansane A, Tokede O, Walji MF, et al. J Patient Saf. 2021;17(8):e1050-e1056.
Clinician burnout is a known threat to patient safety. This survey of a national sample of dentists found that approximately 1 in 10 respondents reported high levels of burnout and 50% of respondents reported a perceived dental error in the last 6 months. Efforts to minimize burnout among dentists may help improve patient safety.