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Barber Doucet H, Ward VL, Johnson TJ, et al. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2021;60(9-10):408-417.
Healthcare provider implicit biases can lead to inequitable care delivery and poorer patient outcomes. Pediatric residents were surveyed about their attitudes, skill level, and preferred educational interventions related to implicit bias and care of diverse populations. Prior medical education or training in diversity and bias-related skills was associated with higher self-reported skill level.
D'Angelo JD, Lund S, Busch RA, et al. Surgery. 2021;170(2):440-445.
This study evaluated the type and effectiveness of resident and faculty coping strategies following an intraoperative error and the interaction with physician gender. Results show that while men and women surgeons experience adverse events at approximately the same rate, the coping methods utilized and effectiveness of the methods varied.

Ellis NT, Broaddus A. CNN. August 25, 2021. 

Maternal safety is an ongoing challenge worldwide. This news feature examines how the COVID pandemic has revealed disparities and implicit biases that impact the maternal care of black women. The stories shared highlight experiences of mothers with preventable pregnancy-related complications.
Jagneaux T, Caffery TS, Musso MW, et al. J Patient Saf. 2021;17(6):425-429.
Emergency and internal medicine residents attended a course on central venous access that included lectures, videos, and simulation using a task trainer. Comparison of pre- and post-training evaluation demonstrated significant improvement in knowledge, confidence, and procedural skills.
Searns JB, Williams MC, MacBrayne CE, et al. Diagnosis (Berl). 2021;8(3):347-352.
This study leveraged “Great Catches” as part of an existing handshake antimicrobial stewardship program (HS-ASP) to identify potential diagnostic errors. Using a validated tool, researchers found that 12% of “Great Catch” cases involved diagnostic error. These cases included a diagnostic recommendation from the HS-ASP team (e.g., recommendations to consider alternative diagnoses, request additional testing, or additional interpretation of laboratory results). As these diagnostic recommendations often flagged diagnostic errors, this suggests that the HS-ASP model can be leveraged to identify and intervene on diagnostic errors in real time.

A 31-year-old woman presented to the ED with worsening shortness of breath and was unexpectedly found to have a moderate-sized left pneumothorax, which was treated via a thoracostomy tube. After additional work-up and computed tomography (CT) imaging, she was told that she had some blebs and mild emphysema, but was discharged without any specific follow-up instructions except to see her primary care physician.

Fatemi Y, Coffin SE. Diagnosis (Berl). 2021;Epub Aug 5.
Using case studies, this commentary describes how availability bias, diagnostic momentum, and premature closure resulted in delayed diagnosis for three pediatric patients first diagnosed with COVID-19. The authors highlight cognitive and systems factors that influenced this diagnostic error.
Park J, Saha S, Chee B, et al. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(7):e2117052.
The patient-provider relationship plays an important role in the delivery of safe, quality health care.  Using electronic encounter notes, this qualitative study describes physician language used to express negative and positive attitudes toward the patient. While positive attitudes were generally expressed via explicit language (e.g., direct compliments), negative attitudes were not explicit and often expressed through questioning patient credibility, disapproval of patient reasoning or self-care, stereotyping, portraying the patient as difficult, and emphasizing physician authority over the patient.
Scott IA, Hubbard RE, Crock C, et al. Intern Med J. 2021;51(4):488-493.
Sound critical thinking skills can help clinicians avoid cognitive biases and diagnostic errors. This article describes three critical thinking skills essential to effective clinical care – clinical reasoning, evidence-informed decision-making, and systems thinking – and approaches to develop these skills during clinician training.

A 61-year-old male was admitted for a right total knee replacement under regional anesthesia. The surgeon – unaware that the anesthesiologist had already performed a right femoral nerve block with 20 ml (100mg) of 0.5% racemic bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia – also infiltrated the arthroplasty wound with 200 mg of ropivacaine. The patient was sedated with an infusion of propofol throughout the procedure.

Arvidsson L, Lindberg M, Skytt B, et al. J Clin Nurs. Epub 2021 Jul 6. 

 

Healthcare associated infections (HAI) affect thousands of hospitalized patients each year. This study evaluated working conditions that impact risk behaviors, such as missed hand hygiene, that may contribute to HAI. Main findings indicate that interruptions and working with colleagues were associated with increased risk behaviors.
Kasick RT, Melvin JE, Perera ST, et al. Diagnosis (Berl). 2021;8(2):209-217.
Diagnostic errors can result in increased length of stay and unplanned hospital readmissions. To reduce readmissions, this hospital implemented a diagnostic time-out to increase the frequency of documented differential diagnosis in pediatric patients admitted with abdominal pain. Results showed marginal improvement in quality of differential diagnosis.

Raz M, Pouryahya P, eds. Singapore; Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd; 2021. ISBN 9789811601422.

Decision making is vulnerable to human influences such as fatigue, interruption and bias. This book provides case examples of how 60 cognitive biases can degrade clinical reasoning in the emergency department and shares tactics that minimize their potential impact on thinking.

Lazris A, Roth AR, Haskell H, et al. Am Fam Physician. 2021;103(12):757-759.  

Communication failures are primary threat to safe care. This commentary shares insights on communication problems that contributed to unsafe medication prescribing from both a clinicians and a patient/family perspective.

Beginning in her teenage years, a woman began "feeling woozy" after high school gym class. The symptoms were abrupt in onset, lasted between 5 to 15 minutes and then subsided after sitting down. Similar episodes occurred occasionally over the following decade, usually related to stress. When she was in her 30s, she experienced a more severe episode of palpitations and went to the emergency department (ED). An electrocardiogram (ECG) was normal and she was discharged with a diagnosis of stress or possible panic attack.

A 34-year-old morbidly obese man was placed under general anesthesia to treat a pilonidal abscess. Upon initial evaluation by an anesthesiologist, he was found to have a short thick neck, suggesting that endotracheal intubation might be difficult. A fellow anesthetist suggested use of video-laryngoscopy equipment, but the attending anesthesiologist rejected the suggestion. A first-year resident attempted to intubate the patient but failed.