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Veazie S, Peterson K, Bourne D, et al. J Patient Saf. 2022;18:e320-e328.
This review expands upon previous work evaluating implementation strategies for high-reliability organizations. Review findings indicate that health care system adoption of high-reliability principles is associated with improved outcomes, but the level of evidence is low. Future research should include concurrent control groups to minimize bias and focus on whether certain high-reliability frameworks, metrics, or intervention components lead to greater improvements.  
Kim S, Appelbaum NP, Baker N, et al. J Healthc Qual. 2020;42:249-263.
This review summarizes studies of training programs targeting healthcare professionals’ speaking up skills. The authors found that most training programs were limited to a one-time training delivered to a single profession (i.e., limited to doctors or nurses).  The majority of programs addressed legitimate power (i.e., social norms such as titles) but few addressed other types of power (e.g., reward or coercive power, personal resources) or the non-verbal (i.e., emotional) skills required in speaking-up behaviors.  
Vaismoradi M, Vizcaya-Moreno F, Jordan S, et al. Sustainability. 2020;12.
This systematic review identified five articles exploring factors influencing error disclosure and reporting practices by nurses in residential long-term care settings. Nurses were not always willing to disclose errors due to lack of confidence, knowledge and understanding of error disclosure guidance, as well as fear of repercussions, litigation, and loss of trust. Nurse leaders were identified as playing an important role in how incident reports are processed and used for improving safety, and should encourage and support error disclosure.
Giardina TD, Royse KE, Khanna A, et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2020;46:282-290.
This study analyzed self-reported adverse events captured on a national online questionnaire to determine the association between patient-reported contributory factors and patient-reported physical, emotional or financial harm. Contributory factors identified in the analysis focused on issues with health care personnel communication, fatigue, or response (e.g., doctor was slow to arrive, nurse was slow to respond to call button). These patient-reported contributory factors increased the likelihood of reporting any type of harm.
DiCuccio MH, Colbert AM, Triolo PK, et al. J Nurs Admin. 2020;50:152-158.
Over 1,000 nurses across 40 medical/surgical or telemetry units throughout seven hospitals were surveyed about perceptions on safety culture, patient advocacy, patient experience, and fall and pressure ulcer rates. Survey results indicated a positive correlation between safety culture and advocacy; however, this relationship was moderated by nursing experience, with newer nurses being more positive about safety culture and advocacy compared to experienced nurses.