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Schnock KO, Biggs B, Fladger A, et al. J Patient Saf. 2021;17:e462-e468.
Hospitals have implemented radiofrequency identification (RFID) technology to improve patient safety. This systematic review of 5 studies suggests that use of RFID can lead to rapid, accurate detection of retained surgical instruments (RSIs) and reduced risk of counting errors.
Abraham J, Pfeifer E, Doering M, et al. Anesth Analg. 2021;132:1563-1575.
Intraoperative handoffs between anesthesiologists are frequently necessary but are not without risk. This systematic review of 14 studies of intraoperative handoffs and handoff tools found that use of handoff tools has a positive impact on patient safety. Additional research is needed around design and implementation of tools, particularly the use of electronic health records to record handoffs.  

Preckel B, ed. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2021;35(1):1-154.

Surgical patients are at high risk for harm, should errors occur. This special issue covers areas of concern in perioperative anesthesia care that include patient allergies, age, sex and gender considerations, and incident reporting system effectiveness.
Mcmullan RD, Urwin R, Gates PJ, et al. Int J Qual Health Care. 2021;33:mzab068.
Distractions in the operating room are common and can lead to errors. This systematic review including 27 studies found that distractions, interruptions, and disruptions in the operating room are associated with a range of negative outcomes. These include longer operative duration, impaired team performance, self-reported errors by colleagues, surgical errors, surgical site infections, and fewer patient safety checks.

Preckel B, ed. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2021;35(1):1-154.

The field of anesthesiology has realized impressive improvements in safety, yet challenges still exist in its practice. This special issue provides discussions on a variety of concerns that require continued effort, including use of early warning scores, differences associated with sex and gender, and use of incident reporting systems.
Fridrich A, Imhof A, Schwappach DLB. J Patient Saf. 2021;17:217-222.
Checklists are used across clinical areas. Following the publication of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Surgical Safety Checklist in 2009, other organizations developed their own checklists or adapted the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist for local settings. The authors analyzed 24 checklists used in 18 Swiss hospitals, identified major differences between study checklists and reference checklists and provided recommendations for future research regarding the effectiveness of surgical safety checklists. 
Gui JL, Nemergut EC, Forkin KT. J Clin Anesth. 2020;68:110110.
Distractions and interruptions are common in health care delivery. This literature review discusses the range of operating room distractions (from common events such as “small talk” to more intense distractions such as unavailable equipment) that can affect anesthesia practice, and their likely impact on patient safety.
Boet S, Djokhdem H, Leir SA, et al. Br J Anaesth. 2020;125:605-613.
Handoffs between providers can introduce patient safety risks. This systematic review explored the impacts of intraoperative anesthesia handovers (e.g., intraoperative relief, transferring care to an incoming provider) on patient safety outcomes. The researchers pooled four studies and found that an intraoperative anesthesia handover significantly increases the risk of an adverse event by 40%.
Dell-Kuster S, Gomes NV, Gawria L, et al. BMJ. 2020;370:m2917.
This cohort study enrolled 18 sites across 12 countries to assess the validity of a newly developed classification system (ClassIntra v1.0) for assessing intraoperative adverse events. Results indicate that the tool has high criterion validity and can be incorporated into routine practice in perioperative surgical safety checklists or used as a monitoring/reporting tool.
Nafiu OO, Mpody C, Kim SS, et al. Pediatrics. 2020;146:e20194113.
The authors analyzed National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) Pediatric data from 2012 through 2017 to explore racial differences in postsurgical complications among healthy children. Compared to white children, African American children were three times as likely to die within 30 days after surgery and were more likely to develop postoperative complications and serious adverse events. These results can help guide future research exploring the mechanisms underlying racial differences in postsurgical outcomes in children.
Koch A, Burns J, Catchpole K, et al. BMJ Qual Saf. 2020;29:1033-1045.
This systematic review evaluated the relationships between intraoperative flow disruptions (eg, interruptions, equipment malfunctions, unexpected patient conditions) and provider, surgical process, and patient outcomes. On average, 20.5% of operating time was attributed to flow disruptions and these disruptions were either negatively or not substantially associated with surgical outcomes. The authors observed substantial heterogeneity of the evidence base and provided recommendations for future research on the effects of flow disruptions in surgery.
Storesund A, Haugen AS, Flaatten H, et al. JAMA Surg. 2020;155:562-570.
This study assessed the impact of combined use of two surgical safety checklists on morbidity, mortality, and length of stay – the Surgical Patient Safety System (SURPASS) is used to address preoperative and postoperative care, and the World Health Organization surgical safety checklist (WHO SSC) is used for perioperative care.  In addition to existing use of the WHO SSC, the SURPASS checklist was implemented in three surgical departments in one tertiary hospital in Norway. Results demonstrated that combined use of these checklists was associated with reduced complications reoperations, and readmissions, but combined use did not impact mortality or length of stay.
Giardina TD, Royse KE, Khanna A, et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2020;46:282-290.
This study analyzed self-reported adverse events captured on a national online questionnaire to determine the association between patient-reported contributory factors and patient-reported physical, emotional or financial harm. Contributory factors identified in the analysis focused on issues with health care personnel communication, fatigue, or response (e.g., doctor was slow to arrive, nurse was slow to respond to call button). These patient-reported contributory factors increased the likelihood of reporting any type of harm.
Kandagatla P, Su W-TK, Adrianto I, et al. J Healthc Qual. 2021;43:101-109.
This study examined the association of inpatient harms (e.g., infections, medication-related harms) and 30-day readmissions through a retrospective analysis of adult surgical patients in a single heath system over a two year period. The authors found that the harms with the highest 30-day readmission rates were pressure ulcers (45%), central line-associated bloodstream infections (40%), Clostridium difficile infections (29%), international normalized ratio >5 for patients taking Warfarin (26%), and catheter-associated urinary tract infections. The authors also described the accuracy of a risk prediction model to identify high-risk patients for 30-day admissions.  
Hajibandeh S, Hajibandeh S, Satyadas T. The Surgeon. 2019;18:231-240.
Differences in weekend care for inpatients have been reported; however, the patient safety implications of the weekend effect are unclear. This meta-analysis pooled data from over 390,000 patients and found there was a higher risk of postoperative mortality among patients undergoing emergency general surgery on the weekends in the United States and Europe.
Westman M, Takala R, Rahi M, et al. World Neurosurg. 2019.
Checklists have been shown to improve patient safety in various surgical specialties but this systematic review found that evidence of their impact in neurosurgery is still limited given emerging technologies such as robotics and artificial intelligence. Studies with larger neurosurgical patient populations, as well as in relation to robotic neurosurgery, are needed to understand the impact of checklists in neurosurgery.