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Etheridge JC, Moyal-Smith R, Sonnay Y, et al. Int J Surg. 2022;98:106210.
Non-technical skills such as communication, teamwork, decision-making, and situational awareness are responsible for a significant proportion of surgical errors. The COVID-19 pandemic increased the stress in the operating room, associated with increased risk of exposure and shortage of resources. This study compared pre- and post-COVID direct observations during live operations and found that non-technical skills were equivalent; there was a small, but statistically significant, improvement in teamwork and cooperation skills.
Koike D, Nomura Y, Nagai M, et al. Int J Qual Health Care. 2020;32:522-530.
Nontechnical skills are gaining interest as one way to enhance surgical team performance and patient safety. In this single-center study, the authors found that a perioperative bundle that introduced nontechnical skills to the surgical team was effective in reducing operative time.   
Perea-Pérez B, Labajo-González E, Acosta-Gío AE, et al. J Patient Saf. 2020;16.
Based on malpractice claims data in Spain, the authors propose eleven recommendations to mitigate preventable adverse events in dentistry. These recommendations include developing a culture of safety, improving the quality of clinical records, safe prescribing practices, using checklists in oral surgical procedures, and having an action plan for life-threatening emergencies in the dental clinic.
Chaudhary N, Varma V, Kapoor S, et al. J Gastrointest Surg. 2015;19:935-42.
This randomized control trial showed reductions in complications and improved mortality with use of the WHO surgical safety checklist in India, consistent with results from earlier studies. Within the checklist group, investigators found fewer complications when the checklist was complete, compared to cases with incomplete checklists. This adds evidence to the recent studies of checklists that reflect insufficient implementation.
Corbally MT, Tierney E. Int J Pediatr. 2014;2014:791490.
Many institutions are attempting to increase patient and family engagement in safety efforts. This report on integrating parents of children undergoing surgery into the completion of the WHO surgical safety checklist provides a helpful example of families being successfully incorporated into an existing safety program.
Kim H, Capezuti E, Kovner C, et al. Gerontologist. 2010;50:810-20.
Recent efforts to withhold payment for certain preventable adverse events have increased the importance of determining whether such conditions are present on admission to the hospital. This study found that, if the present-on-admission indicator was not used, the AHRQ Patient Safety Indicators overestimated the incidence of postoperative complications.
Einav Y, Gopher D, Kara I, et al. Chest. 2010;137:443-9.
Improving perioperative safety requires optimal communication within the surgical team; however, classic studies have shown that teamwork in the operating room is often suboptimal. This study successfully improved communication and safety through creation of a structured preoperative briefing protocol for gynecologic and orthopedic procedures. The protocol required discussion of critical operative elements between the surgeons, anesthesiologists, and nurses prior to surgery. Checklists have been remarkably successful at reducing perioperative adverse events, and this protocol incorporated some elements of previously published perioperative checklists and The Joint Commission's Universal Protocol. However, the protocol used in this study focused on creating shared situational awareness among all team members, and did not explicitly mandate specific steps as in a checklist. An accompanying editorial discusses the cultural challenges that have accompanied attempts to improve surgical safety.
World Health Organization.
This initiative provides a surgical safety checklist and related educational and training materials building on the Second Global Patient Safety Challenge vision to encourage international adoption of a core set of safety standards. Implementation of this World Health Organization’s checklist has resulted in dramatic reductions in surgical mortality and complications across diverse international hospitals. Surgical checklists have now become one of the clearest success stories in the patient safety movement, although some have described challenges to effective implementation. Dr. Atul Gawande discussed the history of checklists as a quality and safety tool in his book, The Checklist Manifesto: How to Get Things Right.
Intern J Health Care Qual Assur. 2007;20(7):555-632.
This special issue includes articles by authors from Australia, Israel, France, Iran, and Belgium that explore ideas such as building a culture of safety, replacing medical equipment, and measuring safety improvements.