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A blood-soaked BP cuff used on one trauma patient is re-used on the next trauma patient, with no regard to universal precautions.
A woman is given methotrexate prematurely for suspected ectopic pregnancy and ultimately has salpingectomy.
Antipsychotic, rather than antihistamine, mistakenly dispensed to woman with bipolar disorder with new urticaria.
A man almost received a medication intended for another patient with the same last name in the same room.
An infusion pump being used for routine sedation in a child undergoing a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan flew across the room and hit the MRI magnet, narrowly missing the child.

Smedley BD, Stith AY, Nelson AR, eds and Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC; The National Academies Press: 2003. ISBN 9780309082655.

Patient race and socioeconomic disparities result in biases that affect patient safety. This publication examines strategies to minimize these impacts such as interpreter use, localized care delivery, and improved data collection to better ascertain the true state of the problem and design initiatives to address it.
Schulman KA, Berlin JA, Harless W, et al. N Engl J Med. 2002;340:618-626.
Gender, racial, and ethnic disparities in healthcare can affect patient safety and lead to poor outcomes. This study used actors portraying patients to explore the impact of race and sex on physicians’ decision-making about use of cardiac catheterization for chest pain. Analyses indicate that women and Black patients with chest pain were less likely to be referred for cardiac catheterization compared to white men.