The AHRQ PSNet Collection comprises an extensive selection of resources relevant to the patient safety community. These resources come in a variety of formats, including literature, research, tools, and Web sites. Resources are identified using the National Library of Medicine’s Medline database, various news and content aggregators, and the expertise of the AHRQ PSNet editorial and technical teams.
Salmon PM, King B, Hulme A, et al. Safety Sci. 2022;159:106003.
Organizations are encouraged to proactively identify patient safety risks and learn from failures. This article describes validity testing of systems-thinking risk assessment (Net-HARMS) to identify risks associated with patient medication administration and an accident analysis method (AcciMap) to analyze a medication administration error.
Westbrook JI, Li L, Raban MZ, et al. NPJ Digit Med. 2022;5:179.
Pediatric patients are particularly vulnerable to medication errors. This cluster randomized controlled trial examined the short- and long-term impacts of an electronic medication management (eMM) system implemented at one pediatric referral hospital in Australia. Findings suggest that eMM implementation did not reduce medication errors in the first 70 days of use, but researchers observed a decrease in medication errors one year after implementation, suggesting long-term benefits.
Department of Health and Aged Care. Canberra ACT: Commonwealth of Australia; 2022. ISBN 978-1-76007-471-5.
Originally published in 2005, these Guiding Principles outlines 10 guiding principles to support medication management as patients transfer from one care environment to another, both within one care setting (e.g., hospital) and between care settings (e.g., hospital to long term care). The Guiding Principles are person centered, equity, and coordination and collaboration.
Newman B, Joseph K, McDonald FEJ, et al. Health Expect. 2022;25:3215-3224.
Patient engagement focuses on involving patients in detecting adverse events, empowering patients to speak up, and emphasizing the patient’s role in a culture of safety. Young people ages 16-25 with experiences in cancer care, and staff who support young people with cancer were asked about their experiences with three types of patient engagement strategies. Four themes for engaging young people emerged, including empowerment, transparency, participatory culture, and flexibility. Across all these was a fifth theme of transition from youth to adult care.
This survey compared factors influencing opinions about patient-safety-related behaviors among medical students and physicians compared to the general public in Australia. Respondents had significantly different opinions on several of the hypothetical patient safety scenarios used in the survey. Findings suggest that physician and medical student opinions are often influenced by cognitive dissonance, biases, and heuristics.
Hacker CE, Debono D, Travaglia J, et al. J Health Organ Manag. 2022;36:981-986.
Disinfection and cleaning of the hospital environment can promote a reduction in healthcare-associated infections. This commentary discussed the important, yet largely invisible, role of the hospital cleaning workforce. The authors also describe additional benefits provided by cleaners, such as reducing patient isolation and alerting clinical staff to patient changes.
Van Wassenhove W, Foussard C, Dekker SWA, et al. Safety Sci. 2022;154:105835.
Proficient safety professionals are the cornerstone of effective patient safety programs. In this study, safety professionals provided insights about theoretical factors influencing the role of safety professionals in healthcare (e.g., legal regulation, organizational context, safety culture).
Westbrook JI, McMullan R, Urwin R, et al. Intern Med J. 2022;52:1821-1825.
The COVID-19 pandemic dramatically impacted team functioning in healthcare settings. This survey of nearly 1,600 clinical and non-clinical staff at five Australian hospitals did not identify any perceived increases in unprofessional behaviors during the pandemic and 44% of respondents cited improvements in teamwork.
Shiell A, Fry M, Elliott D, et al. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2022;73:103294.
Rapid response team (RRT) activations bring together a team of providers to immediately assess and treat a patient who is rapidly deteriorating. This mixed-methods study examined the characteristics of a collaborative RRT model in one Australian tertiary care hospital. The majority of activations occurred in general medicine units and some patients (approximately 5%) had more than five activations. Qualitative interviews with nurses and physicians highlighted how the collaborative RRT model improves patient safety and optimized early detection and management of patient deterioration.
Thiruchelvam K, Byles J, Hasan SS, et al. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2022;18:3758-3765.
Potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) are common among older adults living in residential care facilities. This study examined the impact of the Australian Residential Medication Management Review (RMMR) service (a patient-centered medication review program) on PIM prescribing among older women living in residential aged care facilities. Researchers identified no evidence of an association between the medication review program and use of PIMs in the following year.
Thiele L, Flabouris A, Thompson C. PLoS ONE. 2022;17:e0269921.
Patient and family engagement is essential for safe healthcare. This single-site study found that while most clinicians perceived that patients and families are able to recognize clinical deterioration, clinicians expressed less favorable perceptions towards escalation processes when patients or families have concerns about clinical deterioration.
Redley B, Douglas T, Hoon L, et al. J Adv Nurs. 2022;78:3745-3759.
Frontline care providers such as nurses play an important role in reducing preventable harm. This study used qualitative methods (direct observation and participatory workshops) to explore nurses’ experiences implementing harm prevention practices when admitting an older adult to the hospital. Researchers identified barriers (e.g., lack of resources, information gaps) and enablers (e.g., teamwork, reminders) to harm prevention during the admission process.
Levkovich BJ, Orosz J, Bingham G, et al. BMJ Qual Saf. 2022;Epub Jul 5.
Rapid response teams, also known as medical emergency teams (MET), are activated when a patient demonstrates signs of clinical deterioration to prevent transfer to intensive care, cardiac arrest, and death. MET activations were prospectively reviewed at two Australian hospitals to determine the proportion of activations due to medication-related harms and assess the preventability of the activation. 23% of MET activations were medication-related, and 63% of those were considered preventable. Most preventable activations were patients with hypertension, and prevention strategies should focus on these patients.
Jordan M, Young-Whitford M, Mullan J, et al. Aust J Gen Pract. 2022;51:521-528.
Interventions such as deprescribing, pharmacist involvement, and medication reconciliation are used to reduce polypharmacy and use of high-risk medications such as opioids. In this study, a pharmacist was embedded in general practice to support medication management of high-risk patients. This study presents perspectives of the pharmacists, general practitioners, practice personnel, patients, and carers who participated in the program.
Madigan C, Way KA, Johnstone K, et al. J Safety Res. 2022;81:203-215.
Leadership engagement in safety is essential to implementing sustainable change. This qualitative study found that rational persuasion and legitimating were the most frequently used and certain factors – such as organizational culture, safety beliefs, and leadership style – can impact how safety professionals influence managers making safety decisions in healthcare settings. The authors discuss the importance of both technical and non-technical skills to enhance influence among safety professionals.
Farrell C‐JL, Giannoutsos J. Int J Lab Hematol. 2022;44:497-503.
Wrong blood in tube (WBIT) errors can result in serious diagnostic and treatment errors, but may go unrecognized by clinical staff. In this study, machine learning was used to identify potential WBIT errors which were then compared to manual review by laboratory staff. The machine learning models showed higher accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity compared to manual review.
Ong N, Mimmo L, Barnett D, et al. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2022;64:1359-1365.
Patients with intellectual disabilities may be at higher risk for patient safety events. In this study, researchers qualitatively analyzed hospital incident reporting data and identified incidents categories disproportionately experienced by children with intellectual disabilities. These incident categories included medication-intravenous fluid issues, communication failures, clinical deterioration, and care issues identified by parents.
Joseph K, Newman B, Manias E, et al. Patient Educ Couns. 2022;105:2778-2784.
Lack of patient engagement in care can place them at increased risk for safety events. This qualitative study explored ethnic minority stakeholder perspectives about patient engagement in cancer care. Focus groups consisting of participants from consumer and health organizations involved in cancer care in Australia identified three themes supporting successful engagement – consideration of sociocultural beliefs about cancer, adaptation of existing techniques tailored to stakeholders (e.g., culturally specific content), and accounting for factors such as cultural competence during implementation.
Buhlmann M, Ewens B, Rashidi A. J Adv Nurs. 2022;78:2960-2972.
The term “second victims” describes clinicians who experience emotional or physical distress following involvement in an adverse event. Nurses and midwives were interviewed about “moving on” from the impact of a critical incident. Five main themes were identified: Initial emotional and physical response, the aftermath, long-lasting repercussions, workplace support, and moving on. Lack of organizational support exacerbated the nurses’ and midwives’ responses.
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