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Woods-Hill CZ, Colantuoni EA, Koontz DW, et al. JAMA Pediatr. 2022;Epub May 2.
Stewardship interventions seek to optimize use of healthcare services, such as diagnostic tests or antibiotics. This article reports findings from a 14-site multidisciplinary collaborative evaluating pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) blood culture practices before and after implementation of a diagnostic stewardship intervention. Researchers found that rates of blood cultures, broad-spectrum antibiotic use, and central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSI) were reduced postintervention.
Trbovich PL, Tomasi JN, Kolodzey L, et al. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2022;23:151-159.
Intensive care units (ICU) are high-risk environments. Based on direct observations, these researchers identified 226 latent safety threats affecting routine care activities in pediatric ICUs. Findings indicate that threats persist regardless of whether individuals comply with or deviate from policies and protocols, suggesting the need for targeted interventions beyond reinforcing compliance.
Fitzgerald KM, Banerjee TR, Starmer AJ, et al. Pediatr Qual Saf. 2022;7:e539.
I-PASS is a structured handoff tool designed to improve communication between teams at change-of-shift or between care settings. This children’s hospital implemented an I-PASS program to improve communication between attending physicians and safety culture. One year after the program was introduced, all observed handoffs included all five elements of I-PASS and the duration of handoff did not change. Additionally, the “handoff and transition score” on the Agency for Healthcare Quality (AHRQ) Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture improved.
Nether KG, Thomas EJ, Khan A, et al. J Healthc Qual. 2022;44:23-30.
Medical errors in the neonatal intensive care unit threaten patient safety. This children’s hospital implemented a robust process improvement program (RPI, which refers to widespread dissemination of process improvement tools to support staff skill development and identify sustainable improvements) to reduce harm in the neonatal intensive care unit. The program resulted in significant and sustainable improvements to staff confidence and knowledge related to RPI tools. It also contributed to improvements in health outcomes, including healthcare-acquired infection.
Kukielka E, Jones R. Patient Safety. 2022;4:49-59.
Medication errors can occur in all clinical settings, but can have especially devastating results in emergency departments (EDs). Between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2020, 250 serious medication errors occurring in the ED were reported to the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Reporting System. Errors were more likely to occur on weekends and between 12:00 pm and midnight; patients were more likely to be women. Potential strategies to reduce serious medication errors (e.g., inclusion of emergency medicine pharmacists in patient care) are discussed.
LaScala EC, Monroe AK, Hall GA, et al. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2022;38:e387-e392.
Several factors contribute to pediatric antibiotic medication errors in the emergency department, such as the frequent use of verbal orders and the need for  weight-based dosing. Results of this study align with previous research and reinforce the need for further investigation and interventions to reduce antibiotic medication errors such as computerized provider order entry.
Patel TK, Patel PB, Bhalla HL, et al. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2022;78:267-278.
Adverse drug events are common and often result in preventable patient harm. Based on 23 included studies from US and international settings, this meta-analysis estimated that drug-related deaths contributed to 5.6% of all inpatient hospital deaths. The authors estimated that almost half of drug-related deaths are preventable.
Mimmo L, Harrison R, Travaglia J, et al. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2022;64:314-322.
Children with intellectual disabilities may experience poor-quality care and be at higher risk for patient safety events. This cross-sectional study including patients admitted to two children’s hospitals in Australia found that children with intellectual disabilities had longer hospital stays and experienced more admissions with at least one clinical incident (e.g., medication incidents, documentation errors) compared to children without intellectual disabilities.
Bardach NS, Stotts JR, Fiore DM, et al. J Hosp Med. 2022;Epub Feb 4.
Patients and families represent an often untapped resource in identifying errors and adverse events. Using a mobile health tool, pediatric patients and families were encouraged to report safety events that occurred during the child’s hospital stay. These reports were compared with incident reports (IRs) submitted to the internal incident reporting system. Of the 51 potential IR observations, only one had been submitted to the IR system. Notably, differences in the number of reported events varied by race, ethnicity, insurance status, and other marginalized groups, highlighting a need to explicitly engage these populations. 
Lawson SA, Hornung LN, Lawrence M, et al. Pediatrics. 2022;149:e2020004937.
Insulin is a high-risk medication and can contribute to adverse events in pediatric patients. This paper describes one children’s hospital’s experience implementing a new standardized medication administration process for insulin and the impact on insulin-related adverse drug events (ADEs). Findings indicate that implementation of a PRN (i.e., “as needed”) ordering process and clinician education decreased insulin-related ADEs and reduced the time between blood glucose checks and insulin administration.

Farnborough, UK: Healthcare Safety Investigation Branch; February 2, 2022.

Weight-calculation errors can result in pediatric patient harm as they affect medication prescribing, dispensing, and administration accuracy. This report examines factors contributing to a computation mistake that resulted in a child receiving a 10-fold anticoagulant overdose over a 3-day period. Areas of focus for improvement include use of prescribing technology, and the double-check as an error barrier.
Sawicki JG, Nystrom DT, Purtell R, et al. Hosp Pract (1995). 2021;49:437-444.
Diagnostic errors are a significant patient safety issue. This systematic review describes the scope of existing research regarding diagnostic errors in pediatric patients. The authors concluded that there are limited data describing diagnostic errors in pediatric hospital settings. Findings suggest that the prevalence of diagnostic error in pediatric hospitals varied and largely depended on the measurement technique and hospital setting.
Batra EK, Lewis ML, Saravana D, et al. Pediatrics. 2021;148:e2020033704.
Safety bundles are known to improve clinician adherence to guidelines and improve patient safety. This children’s hospital implemented a safe sleep bundle in all departments to reduce sudden unexpected infant deaths. Overall compliance with safe sleep guidelines increased from 9% to 72%. Three individual components also improved (head of bed flat, sleep space free of extra items, and caregiver education completed); one measure, centerline for infant in supine position, remained stable. The safe sleep bundle was shown to be effective in improving infant sleep environments.
Chiel L, Freiman E, Yarahuan J, et al. Hosp Pediatr. 2021;12:e35-e38.
Medical residents write patient care orders overnight that are often not reviewed by attending physicians until the next morning. This study used the hospital’s data warehouse and retrospective chart review to examine 5927 orders over a 12-month period, 538 were included in the analysis. Key reasons for order changes included medical decision making, patient trajectory, and medication errors. Authors suggest errors of omission may be an area to direct safety initiatives in the future.
Gampetro PJ, Segvich JP, Hughes AM, et al. J Pediatr Nurs. 2022;63:20-27.
Communicating and reporting patient safety incidents relies on a robust safety culture wherein health care providers feel supported, not blamed, for errors. Using pediatric registered nurses’ responses from the 2016 and 2018 Hospital Survey on Patient Culture, researchers explored (1) associations between the communication of RNs within their teams and the frequency that they reported safety events; (2) associations between RNs’ communication within their health care teams and their perceptions of safety within the hospital unit; and (3) whether RNs’ communication had improved from 2016 to 2018.
Sosa T, Mayer B, Chakkalakkal B, et al. Hosp Pediatr. 2022;12:37-46.
Many medications and medical devices can result in preventable harm in pediatric patients. This article describes one hospital’s efforts to implement explicit, structured processes and huddles to increase situational awareness regarding high-risk therapies among the care team and family members. After implementation, the percentage of electronic health record (EHR) alerts correctly describing high-risk therapies increased from 11% to 96%.
De Angulo NR, Penwill N, Pathak PR, et al. Hosp Pediatr. 2021;Epub Dec 24.
This study explored administrator, physician, nurse, and caregiver perceptions of safety in pediatric inpatient care during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants reported changes in workflows, discharge and transfer process, patient and family engagement, and hospital operations.
Linzer M, Neprash HT, Brown RL, et al. Ann Fam Med. 2021;19:521-526.
Using data from the Healthy Work Place trial, this study explored characteristics associated with high clinician and patient trust. Findings suggest that trust is higher when clinicians perceived their organizational cultures as emphasizing quality, communication and information, cohesiveness, and value alignment between clinicians and leaders.