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Erkelens DC, Rutten FH, Wouters LT, et al. J Patient Saf. 2022;18:40-45.
Delays in diagnosis and treatment during after-hours care pose serious threats to patient safety. This case-control study compared missed acute coronary syndrome (ACS) cases to other cases with chest discomfort occurring during out-of-hours services in primary care. Predictors of missed ACS included the use of cardiovascular medication, non-retrosternal chest pain, and consultation of the supervising general practitioner.   
Lam BD, Bourgeois FC, Dong ZJ, et al. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2021;28:685-694.
Providing patients access to their medical records can improve patient engagement and error identification. A survey of patients and families found that about half of adult patients and pediatric families who perceived a serious mistake in their ambulatory care notes reported it, but identified several barriers to reporting (e.g. no clear reporting mechanism, lack of perceived support).  
Pandya C, Clarke T, Scarsella E, et al. J Oncol Pract. 2019;15:e480-e489.
Care transitions and handoffs represent a vulnerable time for patients, as failure to communicate important clinical information may occur with the potential for harm. In this pre–post study, researchers found that implementation of an electronic health record tool designed to improve the handoff between oncology clinic and infusion nurses was associated with a reduction in medication errors, shorter average patient waiting time, and better communication between nurses.
Herlihy M, Harcourt K, Fossa A, et al. Obstet Gynecol. 2019;134:128-137.
Prior research has shown that when patients have access to clinicians' notes, they may identify relevant safety concerns. In this study, 9550 obstetrics and gynecology patients were provided with access to their outpatient visit documentation. Almost 70% of eligible patients read one or more notes during the study period, but only 3.2% shared feedback through 232 electronic reports. Of patients who provided feedback, 27% identified errors in the documentation; provider reviewers determined that 75% of these could impact care.
Driver BE, Scharber SK, Fagerstrom ET, et al. J Emerg Med. 2019;56:109-113.
This pre–post study examined the effect of an electronic health record alert that required physicians to respond "yes" or "no" regarding whether tests were pending at the time of discharge from the emergency department. Investigators found that physician responses were often inaccurate, and the proportion of discharged patients with tests pending increased following the intervention, contrary to intentions.
Craynon R, Hager DR, Reed M, et al. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2018;75:1486-1492.
Pharmacists are expanding their reach as stewards of medication safety into the front line of care. This project report describes the pilot testing of pharmacist involvement in development and review of medication orders in the discharge workflow. A substantive percentage of medication problems were prevented due to pharmacist engagement.
Gupta A, Harrod M, Quinn M, et al. Diagnosis (Berl). 2018;5:151-156.
This direct observation study of hospitalist teams on rounds and conducting follow-up work examined the interaction between systems problems and cognitive errors in diagnosis. Researchers found that information gaps related to electronic health records, challenges with handoffs, and time constraints all contributed to difficulties in diagnostic cognition. The authors suggest considering both systems and cognitive challenges to diagnosis in order to promote safety.
Barbieri AL, Fadare O, Fan L, et al. J Pathol Inform. 2018;9:8.
This secondary data analysis of electronic health record (EHR) messages addressed to pathologists uncovered gaps in clinician-to-clinician communication. A range of clinicians used the EHR to ask clinical questions of pathologists, and pathologists largely did not use the EHR message inbox. The authors suggest that design and implementation of electronic tools should anticipate and address these potential safety problems.
Gilliland N, Catherwood N, Chen S, et al. BMJ Open Qual. 2018;7:e000170.
Incomplete communication regarding patient information can diminish the safety of care delivery. This commentary describes how a quality improvement project applied plan–do–study–act cycles to enhance collection of patient data. Researchers developed, tested, and refined a ward round template in a United Kingdom urology service and increased compliance in the recording of patient care measures.
Zuccotti G, Samal L, Maloney FL, et al. Ann Intern Med. 2018;168:820-821.
Failure to follow up abnormal test results can lead to a delayed or missed diagnosis. Using data from a single institution, researchers observed that while more than 99% of abnormal mammograms received appropriate follow-up, only 91% of abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smears did. They suggest that improving workflow processes and ensuring appropriate use of health information technology can help optimize test result follow-up.
Dalal AK, Schaffer A, Gershanik EF, et al. J Gen Intern Med. 2018;33:1043-1051.
Incomplete follow-up of tests pending at hospital discharge is a persistent patient safety issue. This cluster-randomized trial used medical record review to assess whether an automated notification of test results to discharging hospitalist physicians and receiving primary care physicians improved follow-up compared with usual care. The intervention was focused on actionable test results, which constituted less than 10% of all pending tests. Even with the intervention, only 60% of tests deemed actionable had any documented follow-up in the medical record, and there was no significant difference compared to usual care. The authors conclude that automated clinician notification does not constitute a sufficient intervention to optimize management of tests pending at discharge. Previous WebM&M commentaries explored problems related to tests pending at discharge and how organizations can improve follow-up of abnormal test results.
Whitehead NS, Williams L, Meleth S, et al. J Hosp Med. 2018.
Test results pending at the time of hospital discharge can lead to a delay in diagnosis and represent a significant patient safety risk. This systematic review found that certain electronic and educational interventions may improve documentation and awareness of pending test results. The authors suggest that further research is needed to understand how these interventions affect processes and outcomes.
Bastawrous S, Carney B. J Digit Imaging. 2017;30:309-313.
Inadequate test result management is known to contribute to missed and delayed diagnosis. This Veterans Affairs study found that 0.17% of radiologic studies were not evaluated by radiologists. The study team identified several technical and process problems that contributed to these unread studies. They were able to address the issues to ensure all studies were read.
Meyer AND, Murphy DR, Al-Mutairi A, et al. J Gen Intern Med. 2017;32.
Trigger tools facilitate identification of adverse events. In this retrospective medical record review study, investigators found that an automated trigger successfully identified delayed follow-up of laboratory thyroid testing among patients with hypothyroidism, with a positive predictive value of 60%. The authors suggest that this trigger approach could be used to detect and ameliorate follow-up delays in real time.
Lo H-Y, Mullan PC, Lye C, et al. BMJ Qual Improv Rep. 2016;5.
Patient handoffs are vulnerable to errors of omission. This quality improvement project designed and implemented a checklist as a way to standardize the process of pediatric handoffs. The program found the tool to be effective in uncovering problems and physicians felt the checklist supported situational awareness and patient safety.
Murphy DR, Meyer AND, Bhise V, et al. Chest. 2016;150:613-20.
Insufficient follow-up of test results is a known contributor to missed and delayed diagnosis. This observational study used a trigger tool to detect diagnostic delays related to chest imaging follow-up. Investigators used an automated algorithm to identify chest imaging cases that potentially had a follow-up delay. A clinician then reviewed the medical records for a random sample of cases identified by the trigger tool and a reference set of cases involving patients with abnormal test results but no delays. They found that the trigger tool had 99% sensitivity and 38% specificity in detecting delays in follow-up of abnormal chest imaging. The authors suggest that this trigger tool may help identify patients at risk for diagnostic delay following abnormal chest imaging. A WebM&M commentary discussed delayed follow-up of a diagnostic test.
Yadav S, Kazanji N, C NK, et al. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2017;24:140-144.
Compared to paper charts, electronic health records offer safety benefits for physician documentation including better availability and legibility. However, electronic documentation introduces new concerns, such as copy-and-paste practices (which can perpetuate errors) and lack of diagnostic reasoning in electronic notes. This study compared physical exam documentation in initial physician progress notes before and after implementation of an electronic health record. Investigators found more inaccuracies in electronic notes, but more errors of omission in paper charts. Trainee physicians' documentation had fewer errors in both paper and electronic formats. The authors recommend that hospitals discourage copied notes and encourage accurate documentation at the time of the patient encounter. The importance of the physical examination itself was discussed in a PSNet interview with Dr. Abraham Verghese.
Patel JJ. JAMA. 2015;314:671-2.
Despite the potential for electronic health record (EHR) systems to improve access to patient data, unintended consequences have emerged that can hinder information seeking. To highlight how EHRs can detract from patient–physician relationships, this commentary reveals insights from a physician who failed to notice a patient's respiratory failure and distress due to over-reliance on the EHR.
Dalal AK, Pesterev BM, Eibensteiner K, et al. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2015;22:905-8.
Failure to follow-up on test results in ambulatory practice is a common, serious safety concern. This study examined the use of a results manager tool by primary care physicians in Partners Healthcare in Boston. Although the vast majority of providers used the tool, many did not find that it was helpful for any specific purpose and only 64% were satisfied with the tool.