The AHRQ PSNet Collection comprises an extensive selection of resources relevant to the patient safety community. These resources come in a variety of formats, including literature, research, tools, and Web sites. Resources are identified using the National Library of Medicine’s Medline database, various news and content aggregators, and the expertise of the AHRQ PSNet editorial and technical teams.
Zhong A, Amat MJ, Anderson TS, et al. JAMA Netw Open. 2023;6:e2343417.
Increased use of telehealth presents both benefits and potential threats to patient safety. In this study of 4,133 patients, researchers found that orders for colonoscopies or cardiac stress tests and dermatology referrals placed during telehealth visits were less likely to be completed within the designated timeframe compared to those ordered during in-person visits (43% vs. 58%). Not completing test or referrals within the recommended timeframe can increase the risk of delayed diagnoses and patient harm.
Bushuven S, Bentele M, Bentele S, et al. J Med Syst. 2023;47:123.
ChatGPT has emerged as a potentially useful tool for clinicians and the public in obtaining heath advice and diagnosis. In this study, six iterations of 22 pediatric emergency vignettes were entered into ChatGPT (total of 132 scenarios) to assess diagnostic accuracy, emergency call advice, and validity of advice given. ChatGPT correctly recommended contacting medical professionals in all cases but only advised calling emergency medical services (EMS) or 911 in 12 of the 22 scenarios. The correct diagnosis was made in 94% of cases, consistent with other research into ChatGPT. Considerably more research is required before ChatGPT could be recommended for diagnostic advice.
Cam H, Wennlöf B, Gillespie U, et al. BMC Health Serv Res. 2023;23:1211.
When patients are discharged from the hospital, they (and their informal caregivers) are given copious amounts of information that must also be communicated to their primary care provider. This qualitative study of primary care and hospital physicians, nurses, and pharmacists highlights several barriers to complete and effective communication between levels of care, particularly regarding geriatric medication safety. Barriers include the large number of complex patients and incongruent expectations of responsibility of primary and hospital providers. Support systems, such as electronic health records, can both enable and hinder communication.
Olazo K, Gallagher TH, Sarkar U. J Patient Saf. 2023;19:547-552.
Marginalized patients are more likely to experience adverse events and it is important to encourage effective disclosure to reinforce and reestablish trust between patients and providers. This qualitative study involving clinicians and patient safety professionals explored challenges responding to and disclosing errors involving historically marginalized patients. Participants identified multilevel challenges, including fragmentation of care and patient mistrust as well a desire for disclosure training and culturally appropriate disclosure toolkits to support effective error disclosure.
Lång K, Josefsson V, Larsson A-M, et al. Lancet Oncol. 2023;24:936-944.
Retrospective studies have shown artificial intelligence (AI) to be at least as accurate as radiologists in detecting breast cancer in screening mammograms. This prospective randomized trial similarly demonstrated that AI readings were as accurate as double readings by radiologists, but with a significantly reduced workload.
Arbaje AI, Greyson S, Keita Fakeye M, et al. J Patient Saf Risk Manag. 2023;28:201-207.
Older adult patients and family caregivers face numerous safety challenges when transitioning from the hospital to skilled home health (HH). This article describes how older adults and their family caregivers, HH frontline providers, HH leadership, and HH hospital-based transition coordinators, were engaged to identify best practices to implement the Hospital-to-Home Health Transition Quality (H3TQ) Index. This participatory co-design process identified ways patients, caregivers, and staff differ in how and when to administer the H3TQ Index, confirming the importance of engaging a wide range of stakeholders in design processes.
Liu Y, Jun H, Becker A, et al. J Prev Alz Dis. 2023;Epub Oct 24.
Persons with dementia are at increased risk for adverse events compared to those without dementia, highlighting the importance of a timely diagnosis. In this study, researchers estimate approximately 20% of primary care patients aged 65 and older are expected to have a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment or dementia; however, only 8% have received such a diagnosis. Missed diagnosis prevents patients from receiving appropriate care, including newly FDA-approved medications to slow cognitive decline.
Mohamed I, Hom GL, Jiang S, et al. Acad Radiol. 2023;Epub Sep 22.
Psychological safety is an important principle in identifying problems and improving patient outcomes. This narrative review highlights five best practices to foster psychological safety in radiology residencies – (1) establish clear goals and educational strategies, (2) build a formal mentoring program, (3) assess psychological safety, (4) advocate for radiologists as educators, and (5) support non-radiology staff. Although the review focuses on radiology residency programs, these strategies can be adapted to any residency program.
Dorimain M-V, Plouffe-Malette M, Paquette M, et al. BMJ Open Qual. 2023;12:e002291.
Laboratory tests are an integral part of diagnosing illness and injury, but system issues can result in the delayed communication of results to patients. This article describes use of the AHRQ toolkit Improving Your Office Testing Process to implement new testing and communication procedures. As an academic family practice clinic, an important first step was allowing residents to order tests and receive results in their own name instead of through an attending physician, which can cause delays in communication to patients. Providers and patients were satisfied with the new process.
Ali KJ, Goeschel CA, DeLia DM, et al. Diagnosis (Berl). 2023;Epub Oct 5.
To improve patient safety, payers such as the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid have implemented policies that limit reimbursement for certain healthcare-associated harms. This commentary introduces the “Payer Relationships for Improving Diagnoses (PRIDx)” framework describing how payers may implement similar policies to reduce diagnostic errors.
Alqenae FA, Steinke DT, Belither H, et al. Drug Saf. 2023;46:1021-1037.
Miscommunication between hospitals and community pharmacists at patient discharge can result in incorrect or incomplete medication distribution to patients. This study describes utilization and impact of the Transfers of Care Around Medicines (TCAM) service post-hospital discharge at community pharmacies. An increasing percentage of TCAM referrals were completed post-intervention, but 45% were not completed at all or took longer than one month. The impact of the TCAM service on adverse drug events (ADE) and unintentional medication discrepancies (UMD) was uncertain. Future research may explore reasons for low/late completions or focus on high-risk medications, as those were associated with the most ADE and UMD.
Lamoureux C, Hanna TN, Callaway E, et al. Emerg Radiol. 2023;30:577-587.
Clinician skills can decrease with age. This retrospective analysis of 1.9 million preliminary interpretations of radiology imaging findings examined the relationship between radiologist age and diagnostic errors. While the overall mean error rate for all radiologists was low (0.5%), increasing age was associated with increased relative risk of diagnostic errors.
Kapoor A, Patel P, Mbusa D, et al. J Gen Intern Med. 2023;Epub Sep 27.
Pharmacists are frequently involved in medication reviews for hospitalized patients prescribed direct oral anti-coagulants (DOAC). This randomized controlled study explored pharmacist involvement with patients prescribed DOAC in ambulatory care. The intervention included up to three phone calls, electronic health record communication with the prescriber, and recommendations for lab work. After 90 days, there were no differences in clinically important medication errors between groups.
Huth K, Hotz A, Emara N, et al. J Patient Saf. 2023;19:493-500.
The transition from hospital to home is a vulnerable time as patients may have changes in medications or care needs, or difficulties accessing follow up with an outpatient provider. To reduce adverse events (AE), rehospitalizations, and emergency department visits, this hospital developed a structured discharge bundle based on the I-PASS tool used for inpatient handoffs. AE, rehospitalizations, and emergency department visits were all reduced following implementation of the I-PASS bundle.
Marsch A, Khodosh R, Porter M, et al. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2023;89(4):641-54; 57-67.
Patient safety in dermatology has received increasing attention over the past ten years. Part 1 of this series provides examples of patient safety concerns in dermatology (e.g., medication errors, teledermatology) and how key patient safety concepts such as safety culture and root cause analysis can be applied in dermatology settings. Part 2 of this series applies three quality improvement frameworks (LEAN, Six Sigma, and IHI-QI) can be used to improve the quality and safety of dermatology practice.
Patients with dark skin tones are not well represented in health education, particularly dermatology, which can result in delayed diagnosis. In this scoping review, thirteen articles were identified assessing the confidence of students and healthcare providers in assessing patients with dark skin tones. Overall, confidence was low but tailored training somewhat improved confidence. The author asserts more research and education is needed outside dermatology, for example, when assessments use terms such as pale, redness, or blue.
Georgiou A, Li J, Thomas J, et al. Public Health Res Pract. 2023;33:e3332324.
Several systemic factors may hinder communication of test results to patients and clinicians. This article describes a research project in Australia, "Delivering safe and effective test result communication, management and follow-up." Along with previously identified test result communication challenges such as workflow and technology, this paper highlights the need for national thresholds for critical laboratory results.
Atallah F, Gomes C, Minkoff H. Obstet Gynecol. 2023;142:727-732.
Researchers describe two types of decision making in medicine - fast (intuitive) and slow (analytical). While both types are subject to bias, this paper describes how cognitive biases in fast thinking, such as anchoring or framing, as well as racial or moral bias, can result in obstetrical misdiagnosis. Ten steps to mitigate these cognitive biases are laid out.
Ivanovic V, Broadhead K, Beck R, et al. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2023;221:355-362.
Like many clinical areas, a variety of system factors can influence diagnostic error rates in neuroradiology. This study included 564 neuroradiologic examinations with diagnostic error and 1,019 without error. Diagnostic errors were associated with longer interpretation times, higher shift volume, and weekend interpretation.