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Schiavo G, Forgerini M, Lucchetta RC, et al. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2022;Epub Apr 14.
Potentially inappropriate prescribing in older adults can increase the risk of adverse drug events (ADEs). This systematic review assessed increased healthcare costs associated with ADEs related to potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) among older adults. Higher costs were due to increases in hospitalizations, health care expenses, and emergency department visits. Costs were higher among patients with more than one PIM, patients older than 75 years of age, patients with dementia, and patients with other drug interactions.
Morsø L, Birkeland S, Walløe S, et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2022;48:271-279.
Patient complaints can provide insights into safety threats and system weaknesses. This study used the healthcare complaints analysis tool (HCAT) to identify and categorize safety problems in emergency care. Most problems arose during examination/diagnosis and frequently resulted in diagnostic errors or errors of omission.
Enumah SJ, Resnick AS, Chang DC. PLOS ONE. 2022;17:e0266696.
While quality and patient safety initiatives are implemented to improve patient outcomes, they also typically include a financial cost which must be balanced with expected outcomes. This study compared hospitals’ financial performance (i.e., financial margin and risk of financial distress) and outcomes (i.e., 30-day readmission rates, patient safety indicator-90 (PSI-90)) using data from the American Hospital Association and Hospital Compare. Hospitals in the best quintiles of readmission rates and PSI-90 scores had higher operating margins compared to the lowest rated hospitals.
Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation.
This grant program supports research that seeks to improve anesthesia safety and the development of researchers in the specialty. The application process for submitting a grant application for the 2022 funding cycle of the primary solicitation for investigator initiated research (IIR) grants is now closed. Other opportunities for funding become available on a periodic basis.
Muchiri S, Azadeh-Fard N, Pakdil F. J Patient Saf. 2022;18:237-244.
The Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP), implemented by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), imposes a financial penalty on hospitals with higher than average readmission rates for certain conditions. Six years of readmission rates for four conditions included in the HRRP (acute myocardial infarction, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, and pneumonia) and two conditions not included (septicemia and mood disorders) were analyzed to assess the impact of the HRRP. The researchers conclude the HRRP reduced readmission rates for the four targeted conditions, but reductions were not consistent across all categories of patients.
Forrester JD, Maggio PM, Tennakoon L. J Patient Saf. 2022;18:e477-e479.
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) result in poorer patient outcomes and increased costs. The 2016 national data set of five common HAIs (surgical site infections, catheter- and line-associated bloodstream infections, catheter-associate urinary tract infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and Clostridioides difficile) was analyzed to create an estimated national cost. Clostridioides difficile was the most frequently reported; Clostridioides difficile and surgical site infections accounted for 79% of costs.
Shah RK, Reinhart R, Cronin J. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2022;55:105-113.
Experts have advocated the importance of establishing the business case for safety. This article summarizes approaches to establishing the business case for safety through the use of telehealth case-based vignettes as examples. The authors discuss challenges for establishing a business case for safety and future directions.
Arntson E, Dimick JB, Nuliyalu U, et al. Ann Surg. 2021;274:e301-e307.
Hospital-acquired conditions (HACs) are thought to be preventable, and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) reduce payments to hospitals with the highest rates of these conditions through its Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program (HACRP). This study evaluated surgical HACs at three timepoints: before Affordable Care Act (ACA) implementation, after ACA implementation, and after HACRP. While the number of HACs continued to decline after implementation of HACRP, it did not affect 30-day mortality.
Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; July 7 2021.
Health care–associated infections occur across various health care settings. AHRQ seeks to support large research (R01) and dissemination (R18) projects working to develop strategies and approaches for preventing and reducing health care–associated infections. Applications will be accepted on a standard submission schedule through May 27, 2025.
Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. PA-21-266.
This funding opportunity will support collaborative learning strategies that enable individuals and organizations to employ rapid prototyping to engineer new approaches focused on improving diagnosis and treatment. This learning laboratory funding builds on prior initiatives to further improvements in patient safety. The project submission process will close January 27, 2023.
Holm S, Stanton C, Bartlett B. Health Care Anal. 2021;29:171-188.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is currently used to assist with many healthcare practices, including diagnosing cancer, detecting deterioration, and medication reconciliations. As the use of AI continues to expand, regulators and legal experts will need to consider how to manage compensation for patients who have experienced medical errors. This commentary suggests no-fault compensation as a possible solution. 
Johnson SM, Samulski TD, O’Connor SM, et al. Am J Clin Pathol. 2021;156:559-568.
Newly diagnosed cancer patients may request second opinions to confirm diagnosis, treatment, or prognosis. This study evaluated the pathology-specific reimbursement for cases originating at the primary site, a comprehensive cancer center, and cases originating at affiliate sites and referred to the cancer center for second opinions. Results confirmed that second opinions can reduce diagnostic errors and potentially lower costs of subsequent treatment; however, ways to improve the cost and process of receiving a second opinion should be explored.
D’Amore JD, McCrary LK, Denson J, et al. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2021;28:1534-1542.
Quality measurement is increasingly being incorporated into policies outlining healthcare provider reimbursement. This study compared quality measure calculations between an individual electronic health record (EHR) source and the same EHR source combined with health information exchange (HIE) data. The results show that adding HIE data changed 15% of quality measure calculations. The authors suggest that incorporating HIE data into reimbursement programs could promote more accurate and representative quality measurement.

Rau J. Kaiser Health News. February 19, 2021.

Financial incentives have shown both benefits and limitations in addressing hospital-acquired harm. This news article summarizes an annual tally of hospitals facing Medicare payment reductions for high rates of infections and other preventable hospital-acquired conditions.
Vsevolozhskaya OA, Manz KC, Zephyr PM, et al. BMC Health Serv Res. 2021;21:131.
Since 2014, Medicare’s Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program (HACRP) reduces payments to hospitals with elevated rates of certain conditions. Based on multistate data, the authors conclude that there is a disconnect between penalties levied by the program and hospital performance, suggesting that the program may not drive patient safety improvements as intended.  

Jaffe S. Medpage Today. November 25, 2020.

Infection control is a primary safety mechanism that presents challenges for nursing homes. This news story highlights a Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services program to fine nursing homes for infection control lapses during the COVID pandemic and discusses the potential residual impacts of the strategy.

Garman AN, McAlearney AS, Harrison MI, et al. Health Care Manag Rev. 2011-2020.

In this continuing series, high-performance work practices are explored and defined through literature review, case analysis, and research. The authors summarize findings and discuss how best practices can influence quality, safety, and efficiency outcomes. Topics covered include speaking up, central line infection prevention, and business case development.

Rau J. Kaiser Health News. January 30, 2020.

Medicare reimbursement restrictions are a controversial stimulus to motivate hospital acquired condition reduction efforts. This news article examines the legacy of the penalties, the data's ability to be effectively applied across various types of institutions, and the lack of direct connection to improvements.