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The PSNet Collection: All Content

The AHRQ PSNet Collection comprises an extensive selection of resources relevant to the patient safety community. These resources come in a variety of formats, including literature, research, tools, and Web sites. Resources are identified using the National Library of Medicine’s Medline database, various news and content aggregators, and the expertise of the AHRQ PSNet editorial and technical teams.

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Displaying 1 - 15 of 15 Results
Abdelmalak BB, Adhami T, Simmons W, et al. Anesth Analg. 2022;135:198-208.
A 2009 CMS Condition of Participation (CoP) requires that a director of anesthesia services assume overall responsibility for anesthesia administered in the hospital, including procedural sedation provided by nonanesthesiologists. This article reviews the CoP as it relates to procedural sedation, lays out a framework for implementing this role, and describes challenges of implementation in a large health system.
Lin MP, Vargas-Torres C, Shin-Kim J, et al. Am J Emerg Med. 2022;53:135-139.
Drug shortages can result in patient harm, such as dosing errors from a medication substitution. In this study, 28 of the 30 most frequently used medications in the emergency department experienced shortages between 2006 and 2019. The most common reasons for shortages were manufacturing delays and increased demand. The COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated pre-existing drug shortages.
Zheng MY, Lui H, Patino G, et al. J Patient Saf. 2022;18:e401-e406.
California law requires adverse events that led to serious injury or death because of hospital noncompliance to be reported to the state licensing agency. These events are referred to as “immediate jeopardy.” Using publicly available data, this study analyzed all immediate jeopardy cases between 2007 and 2017. Of the 385 immediate jeopardy cases, 36.6% led to patient death, and the most common category was surgical.
Litman RS. J Patient Saf Risk Manag. 2019;24:158-165.
This commentary explores how gaps in legal and regulatory structure affect anesthesia medication safety. The author advocates for use of a public health law framework to prevent certain types of perioperative medication errors made by anesthesiologists. Policy approaches that require organizations to provide prefilled syringes and barcoding scanners are suggested to avoid vial- and syringe-related mistakes.
Benjamin L, Frush K, Shaw K, et al. Ann Emerg Med. 2018;71:e17-e24.
Emergency departments harbor conditions that can hinder safe medication administration for pediatric patients. This policy statement identifies and prioritizes improvements such as implementing kilogram-only weight-based dosing, involving pharmacists in frontline emergency care, and utilizing computerized provider order entry and clinical decision support systems.
Naessens JM, Campbell CR, Shah N, et al. Am J Med Qual. 2012;27:48-57.
The epidemiology of adverse events on a population basis has been well studied, but how these data translate to risks for individual patients is not as clear. The likelihood of suffering an adverse event is directly tied to length of hospitalization, and this study sought to evaluate a complementary question: whether patients who are more severely ill at admission are at increased risk of preventable harm. By linking adverse event data from various sources—including Patient Safety Indicators, voluntary error reports, and infection control reports—to clinical databases, the authors were able to show that higher illness severity is associated with an increased risk of adverse events during hospitalization. These findings are supported by the fact that intensive care unit patients have consistently been shown to experience more adverse events. An AHRQ WebM&M commentary discusses a case of a medication error occurring in an acutely ill patient with multiple underlying comorbidities.
Cranshaw J, Gupta KJ, Cook TM. Anaesthesia. 2009;64:1317-23.
This study analyzed nearly a hundred claims alleging patient harm and categorized them by error type, with the most frequent being drug administration errors. Investigators surmised that less than half the claims could have been prevented by using recommended double checking processes.
Wachter RM, Flanders SA, Fee C, et al. Ann Intern Med. 2008;149:29-32.
Efforts to improve the quality and safety of care are being driven in part by a growing focus on public reporting. This commentary shares the potential for the unintended consequences of reporting on flawed performance measures, using time to first antibiotic dose (TFAD) in patients with pneumonia as an example. The authors discuss the background data for this particular quality measure, how it was translated into a performance standard, and the response it generated from emergency departments as well as payers, regulators, and professional societies. The authors conclude with a number of lessons learned from this case example, including the tension that results from having providers balance their desire to do the right thing with the public's view of their quality of care when they are in conflict with each other. A past AHRQ WebM&M commentary discussed the unintended consequences of achieving a good report card on such measures.
Longo DR, Hewett JE, Ge B, et al. JAMA. 2005;294:2858-65.
To grade progress since release of the landmark Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, this AHRQ-funded study examined the status and evolution of patient safety systems through a survey of acute care hospitals in Missouri and Utah. Investigators characterized their assessment based on variables that included presence of computerized physician order entry systems, computerized test results, evaluation of adverse drug events, specific patient safety policies, use of data in patient safety programs, drug administration and safety procedures, error reporting processes, prevention policies, and root cause analyses. More than 100 hospitals completed the survey in 2002 and again in 2004. Findings demonstrated only modest improvements in certain areas with variability noted in others. For instance, surgical areas and medication processes seemed to embrace the greatest level of patient safety systems. However, the authors point out that the overall findings fall short of the IOM recommendations and necessitate a more intensive agenda for accelerated improvements. An accompanying editorial (link below) provides an overview of the factors and challenges involved in promoting change to improve patient safety.