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The PSNet Collection: All Content

The AHRQ PSNet Collection comprises an extensive selection of resources relevant to the patient safety community. These resources come in a variety of formats, including literature, research, tools, and Web sites. Resources are identified using the National Library of Medicine’s Medline database, various news and content aggregators, and the expertise of the AHRQ PSNet editorial and technical teams.

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Displaying 1 - 20 of 317 Results
Johansen JS, Halvorsen KH, Svendsen K, et al. BMC Health Serv Res. 2022;22:1290.
Reducing unplanned hospital readmissions is a priority patient safety focus, and numerous interventions with hospital pharmacists have been developed. In this study, hospitalized adults aged 70 years and older were randomized to receive standard care or the IMMENSE intervention. The IMprove MEdicatioN Safety in the Elderly (IMMENSE) intervention is based on the integrated medicine management (IMM) model and consists of five steps, including medication reconciliation, patient counseling, and communication with the patient’s primary care provider. There was no significant difference in emergency department visits or readmissions between control and intervention within 12 months of the index hospital visit.
Iturgoyen Fuentes DP, Meneses Mangas C, Cuervas Mons Vendrell M. Eur J Hosp Pharm. 2022;Epub Sep 30.
Medication reconciliation at hospital admission has reduced medication errors, but less is known about the pediatric population, particularly which patients may benefit most from reconciliation. This retrospective study of pediatric patients who experienced at least one medication reconciliation error found children older than 5 years, taking 4 or more medications, or with neurological or onco-hematological conditions were at increased risk of errors. Prioritization of these populations may improve the effectiveness of medication reconciliation.
Lauffenburger JC, Coll MD, Kim E, et al. Med Educ. 2022;56:1032-1041.
Medication errors can be common among medical trainees. Using semi-structured qualitative interviews, this study identified factors influencing suboptimal prescribing by medical residents during overnight coverage, including time pressures, perceived pressure and fear of judgement, clinical acuity, and communication issues between care team members.
Beerlage-Davids CJ, Ponjee GHM, Vanhommerig JW, et al. Int J Clin Pharm. 2022;Epub Oct 15.
Older adults taking multiple medications are at increased risk for adverse drug events following hospital discharge. In this study, patients were contacted two weeks after hospital discharge to evaluate adverse events, adverse drug events, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). There was a weak but significant correlation between patient-reported adverse events and HRQoL, but not patient-reported adverse drug events.  
Punj E, Collins A, Agravedi N, et al. Pharmacol Res Perspect. 2022;10:e01007.
Pharmacists play an important role in preventing medication errors. This systematic review identified 17 studies showing that pharmacy teams working in acute or emergency medicine departments can reduce medication errors through medication reconciliation.
Keller C. Health Aff (Millwood). 2022;41:1353-1356.
Communication failures due to hierarchy and silos create opportunities for adverse medication and treatment events. This narrative essay discusses gaps in care coordination that contributed to anticoagulant medication errors. The author outlines areas for improvement such as assignment of accountability for error and commitment to the learning health system as avenues for improvement.
Kandaswamy S, Grimes J, Hoffman D, et al. J Patient Saf. 2022;18:430-434.
Despite widespread implementation of computerized provider order entry (CPOE) for medication ordering, some orders may be submitted wholly or in part using the free-text field. This study analyzed CPOE orders that included medication information in the free text field. High-risk medications (e.g., insulin, heparin) were frequently mentioned and the most common expected action was to discontinue. Despite using the same CPOE software, there were wide variations between the six included hospitals in the rates of orders in free text and the types of medications mentioned.
Randles MA. Drugs Aging. 2022;39:597-606.
Potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) among older adults is common and can result in medication-related harm. This narrative review summarizes the evidence on the association between potential frailty and PIP. The authors identified several challenges in measuring and reducing the risks of PIP, including the need for user-friendly methods to rapidly and accurately identify frailty in older adults at risk of PIP.

Schnipper JL. Ann Intern Med. 2022;175(8):ho2-ho3.

Medication reconciliation is a primary method for improving the safety of medication administration in acute care. This essay highlights how individual hospitalists can improve medication reconciliation both at the practice and organizational level. Areas of influence discussed include medication history completeness and health information technology design.
Zhu J, Weingart SN. UpToDate. August 8, 2022.
Unsafe medication systems in hospitals can lead to adverse drug events (ADEs). This review discusses patient care and organizational factors that contribute to ADEs, methods to detect medication errors, and prevention strategies such as medication reconciliation and enhanced pharmacist participation.
Xiao Y, Smith A, Abebe E, et al. J Patient Saf. 2022;18:e1174-e1180.
Older adults are particularly vulnerable to medication errors due to polypharmacy and medical complexities. In this qualitative study, healthcare professionals outlined several multifactorial hazards for medication-related harm during care transitions, including complex dosing, knowledge gaps, errors in discharge medications and gaps in access to care.
Khan A, Parente V, Baird JD, et al. JAMA Pediatr. 2022;176:776-786.
Parent or caregiver limited English proficiency (LPE) has been associated with increased risk of their children experiencing adverse events. In this study, limited English proficiency was associated with lower odds of speaking up or asking questions when something does not appear right with their child’s care. Recommendations for improving communication with limited English proficiency patients and families are presented.
Stuijt CCM, van den Bemt BJF, Boerlage VE, et al. BMC Health Serv Res. 2022;22:722.
Medication reconciliation can reduce medication errors, but implementation practices can vary across institutions. In this study, researchers compared data for patients from six hospitals and different clinical departments and found that hospitals differed in the number and type of medication reconciliation interventions performed. Qualitative analysis suggests that patient mix, types of healthcare professionals involved, and when and where the medication reconciliation interviews took place, influence the number of interventions performed.
Nanji K. UpToDate. June 23, 2022.
Perioperative adverse drug events are common and understudied. This review examines factors that contribute to adverse drug events in the surgical setting and discusses prevention strategies that focus on medication reconciliation, technology, standardization, and institutional change.
Uitvlugt EB, Heer SE, van den Bemt BJF, et al. Res Soc Admin Pharm. 2022;18:2651-2658.
Pharmacists play a critical role in medication safety during transitions of care. This multi-center study found that a transitional pharmacy care program (including teach-back, pharmacy discharge letter, home visit by community pharmacist, and medication reconciliation by both the community and hospital pharmacist) did not decrease the proportion of patients with adverse drug events (ADE) after hospital discharge. The authors discuss several possible explanations as to why the intervention did not impact ADEs and suggest that a process evaluation is needed to explore ways in which a transitional pharmacy care program could reduce ADEs.
Latimer S, Hewitt J, de Wet C, et al. J Clin Nurs. 2022;Epub Mar 6.
Medication reconciliation at hospital discharge has become a mainstay of patient safety efforts with most of the focus on pharmacist involvement. Focus groups of hospital nurses were conducted to elicit their perspectives on their role in medication reconciliation. Three themes emerged: nurses' role involves chasing, checking, and educating; burden of undertaking medication reconciliation at hospital discharge; team collaboration and communication in medication reconciliation.
Mahomedradja RF, van den Beukel TO, van den Bos M, et al. BMC Emerg Med. 2022;22:35.
The potential for medication errors may increase due to redeployment and reorganization of hospital resources during COVID-19 surges. In this study of patients hospitalized during the first wave of the pandemic, over 90% had at least one prescribing error three months after hospitalization. Intensive care unit admission and a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma were risk factors for prescribing errors. Acknowledging and understanding these risk factors allows hospital leadership to target interventions for this population.
Andersen TS, Gemmer MN, Sejberg HRC, et al. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2022;15:142.
Conducting a complete medication reconciliation in the emergency department may be difficult or even impossible if the patient is unable to speak for themselves. In these instances, clinicians must rely solely on electronic records of medication prescriptions, which do not always reflect the medications being taken. This analysis of prescriptions entered into the Danish Shared Medication Record (SMR) and patient reports of medications taken showed 81% of patients had at least one discrepancy, the most common of which was discontinued medications still showing in the SMR.
Shah AS, Hollingsworth EK, Shotwell MS, et al. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2022;70:1180-1189.
Medication reconciliations, including conducting a best possible medication history (BPMH), may occur multiple times during a hospital stay, especially at admission and discharge. By conducting BPMH analysis of 372 hospitalized older adults taking at least 5 medications at admission, researchers found that nearly 90% had at least one discrepancy. Lower age, total prehospital medication count, and admission from a non-home setting were statistically associated with more discrepancies.
van der Nat DJ, Taks M, Huiskes VJB, et al. Int J Clin Pharm. 2022;44:539-547.
Medication reconciliation is a common tool used to identify medication discrepancies and inconsistencies. This study explored clinically relevant deviations in a patient’s medication list by comparing the personal heath record (used by patients) and medication reconciliation during hospital admission. Clinically relevant deviations were higher among patients with individual multi-dose packaging and patients using eight or more medications.