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McDade JE, Olszewski AE, Qu P, et al. Front Pediatr. 2022;10:872060.
Language barriers can place patients at increased risk for adverse events and near misses. This retrospective cohort study found that rapid response team events for non-English speaking pediatric patients are more likely to result in transfer to the intensive care unit compared to English-speaking patients. However, researchers also found that increased use of interpreters can contribute to improved outcomes.  
Acorda DE, Bracken J, Abela K, et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2022;48:196-204.
Rapid response (RR) systems are used to improve clinical outcomes and prevent transfer to ICU of patients demonstrating signs of rapid deterioration. To evaluate its RR system, one hospital’s pediatric department reviewed all REACT (Rapid Escalation After Critical Transfer) events (i.e., cardiopulmonary arrest and/or ventilation and/or hemodynamic support) which occurred within 24 hours of the RR. These reviews identified opportunities for systemwide improvements. 
Olsen SL, Søreide E, Hansen BS. J Patient Saf. 2022;Epub Apr 4.
Rapid response systems (RRS) are widely used to identify signs of rapid deterioration among hospitalized patients.  Using in situ simulation, researchers identified obstacles to effective RRS execution, including inconsistent education and documentation, lack of interpersonal trust, and low psychological safety.
Howlett O, Gleeson R, Jackson L, et al. JBI Evid Synth. 2022;20:2001-2024.
Rapid response teams are designed to provide emergency medical support to deteriorating hospitalized patients. This review examines the role of a family support person (FSP) as part of the rapid response team. The FSP supported the family during the resuscitation in numerous ways, such as explaining jargon and medical procedures and attending to the practical needs of the family.
Bourne RS, Jennings JK, Panagioti M, et al. BMJ Qual Saf. 2022;31:609-622.
Patients transferring from the intensive care unit (ICU) to the hospital ward may experience medication errors. This systematic review examined medication-related interventions on the impact of medication errors in ICU patients transferring to the hospital ward. Seventeen studies were included with five identified intervention components. Multi-component studies based on staff education and guidelines were effective at achieving almost four times more deprescribing on inappropriate medications by the time of discharge. Recommendations for improving transfers are included.
McGaughey J, Fergusson DA, Van Bogaert P, et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021;11:CD005529.
Rapid response systems (RRS) and early warning systems (EWS) are designed to detect patient deterioration and prevent cardiac arrest, transfer to the intensive care unit, or death. This review updates the authors’ review published in 2007. Eleven studies representing patients in 282 hospitals were reviewed to determine the effect of RRS or EWS on patient outcomes.
Leibner ES, Baron EL, Shah RS, et al. J Patient Saf. 2022;18:e810-e815.
During the first surge of the COVID-19 pandemic, a rapid redeployment of noncritical care healthcare staff was necessary to meet the unprecedented number of patients needing critical care. A New York health system developed a multidisciplinary simulation training program to prepare the redeployed staff for new roles in the intensive care unit (ICU). The training included courses on management of a patient with acute decompensation with COVID-19, critical care basics for the non-ICU provider, and manual proning of a mechanically ventilated patient.
Gregory H, Cantley M, Calhoun C, et al. Am J Emerg Med. 2021;46:266-270.
Medication safety continues to be a challenge in most healthcare settings, including emergency departments. In this academic emergency department, an overall error rate of 16.5% was observed, including errors in directions, quantity prescribed, and prescriptions written with refills. Involving a pharmacist at discharge may increase patient safety.
Fischer CP, Bilimoria KY, Ghaferi AA. JAMA. 2021;326:179-180.
Rapid response teams (RRTs) are intended to quickly identify clinical deterioration and prevent intensive care unit transfer, cardiac arrest, or death. This article summarizes the evidence included in the AHRQ Making Healthcare Safer III report about the use of RRTs to decrease failure to rescue. Although utilization is widespread, the authors conclude that definitive evidence that RRTs are associated with reduced rates of failure to rescue is inconclusive. The authors note that evidence does support that RRTs are associated with reduced secondary outcomes, such as ICU transfer rate and cardiac arrest.
Evans S, Green A, Roberson A, et al. J Pediatr Nurs. 2021;61:151-156.
A lack of situational awareness can lead to delayed recognition of patient deterioration. This children’s hospital developed and implemented a situational awareness framework designed to decrease emergency transfers to the intensive care unit (ICU). The framework included both objective and subjective criteria. By identifying patients at increased risk of clinical deterioration (“watcher status”) and use of the framework, recognition of deterioration occurred sooner and resulted in fewer emergency transfers to the ICU.
Nikouline A, Quirion A, Jung JJ, et al. CJEM. 2021;23:537–546.
Trauma resuscitation is a complex, specialized care process with a high risk for errors. This systematic review identified 39 unique errors occurring in trauma resuscitation involving emergency medical services (EMS) handover; airway management; inadequate assessment and/or management of injuries; inadequate monitoring, transfusion/blood-related errors; team communication errors; procedure-related errors; or errors in disposition.
Sprogis SK, Street M, Currey J, et al. Aust Crit Care. 2021;34:580-586.
Medical emergency teams (MET), also known as rapid response teams, are used to improve the identification and management of patients demonstrating signs of rapid deterioration. This study found that modifying activation criteria to trigger METs at more extreme levels of clinical deterioration were not associated with negative patient safety outcomes.
Greer JA, Haischer-Rollo G, Delorey D, et al. Cureus. 2019;11:e4096.
This pre–post study examined the effect of team training on an emergency response team's performance in a perinatal emergency simulation. Following the training, performance in the simulation identified more latent safety threats and adherence to a safety checklist increased. The authors suggest that team training can enhance maternal safety.
Jones SL, Ashton CM, Kiehne L, et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2015;41:483-91.
A protocolized early warning system to improve sepsis recognition and management was associated with a decrease in sepsis-related inpatient mortality. The protocol emphasized early recognition by nurses and escalation of care by a nurse practitioner when indicated. An AHRQ WebM&M commentary describes common errors in the early management of sepsis.
Massey D, Aitken LM, Chaboyer W. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2015;31:83-90.
This study of an after-hours rapid response team found that the team was not always activated as intended. More unplanned admissions to intensive care were identified following rapid response implementation, possibly due to enhanced surveillance for clinical deterioration. Under-utilization of rapid response may account for mixed results in improving patient safety.
Thom KA, Li S, Custer M, et al. Am J Infect Control. 2014;42:139-43.
Central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Efforts to combat these complications include implementation of checklists and—perhaps more importantly—the enhancement of safety culture. Despite the widespread success of these interventions, some institutions continue to experience CLABSI rates that are above national benchmarks. This study describes the introduction of a unit-based quality nurse dedicated to preventing CLABSIs within a surgical intensive care unit (ICU) at an academic medical center. The quality nurse helped to educate staff about health care–associated infections and prevention strategies. The nurse also provided immediate, direct feedback to staff regarding their compliance with best practices. The average CLABSI rate decreased significantly, even after adjusting for multiple factors including reduction in CLABSI rates in other adult ICUs. A unit-based quality nurse may prove to be a powerful adjunct to the current available tools for reducing these costly infections.