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Montgomery A, Lainidi O, Johnson J, et al. Health Care Manage Rev. 2022;Epub Jun 16.
When faced with a patient safety concern, staff need to decide whether to speak up or remain silent. Leaders play a crucial role in addressing contextual factors behind employees’ decisions to remain silent. This article offers support for leaders to create a culture of psychological safety and encourage speaking up behaviors.
Cribb A, O'Hara JK, Waring J. BMJ Qual Saf. 2022;31:327-330.
Patient safety advocates recommend a shift from a blame culture to a just culture. This commentary describes three types of justice that exist in healthcare - retributive, no blame or qualified blame, and restorative. The authors invite debate around the concept of just culture and its role in the “real world”.
Azyabi A. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18:2466.
Accurate measurement of patient safety culture (PSC) is essential to improving patient safety. This review summarizes the results of 66 studies on PSC in hospitals. Multiple instruments were used to assess PSC, including the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSPSC) and the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ). Teamwork and organization and behavioral learning were identified as critical factors impacting PSC and should be considered in future research.
Avesar M, Erez A, Essakow J, et al. Diagnosis (Berl). 2021;8:358-367.
Disruptive and rude behavior can hinder teamwork and diminish patient safety. This randomized, simulation-based study including attendings, fellows, and residents explored whether rudeness during handoff affects the likelihood for challenging a diagnostic error. The authors found that rudeness may disproportionally hinder diagnostic performance among less experienced physicians.
O’Donovan R, McAuliffe E. BMC Health Serv Res. 2020;20:810.
Organizational cultures that encourage psychological safety have been shown to increase safe healthcare. The authors used survey, observational, and interview data to explore psychological safety within four healthcare teams in one hospital. While survey results indicated a high level of psychological safety, observations and interviews identified examples of situations resulting in lower levels of psychological safety, such as absence of learning behavior, low levels of support from other team members, and lack of familiarity among team members.
O’Donovan R, McAuliffe E. Int J Qual Health Care. 2020;32:240-250.
This systematic review analyzed 36 articles exploring factors enabling psychological safety in healthcare teams. The review identified five themes of enabling factors: (1) priority for patient safety, such as safety culture or leadership behavior; (2) improvement or learning orientation leading to a culture of continuous improvement or change-oriented leadership; (3) support from peers, leadership or the organization; (4) familiarity between and across teams and with team leaders, and; (5) status, hierarchy and inclusivity. These themes can aid future objective measures of psychological safety and interventions to improve psychological safety within teams. 
O’Donovan R, McAuliffe E. BMC Health Serv Res. 2020;20:101.
Organizational cultures that encourage psychological safety has been shown to increase safe healthcare practices. This systematic review evaluated fourteen studies targeting psychological safety, speaking up and voice behavior within healthcare settings; studies primarily used educational interventions including simulation (5 studies), video presentations (2 studies), case studies (3 studies) or workshops (1 study). While some interventions showed improvement in psychological safety, this was not consistently demonstrated across studies. The authors note that the ability to demonstrate improvements were limited by lack of objective outcome measures and the inability of educational interventions alone to result in behavior change.