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Farnborough, UK; Healthcare Safety Investigation Branch; May 26, 2022.

Surgical equipment sterilization can be hampered by equipment design, production pressures, process complexity and policy misalignment. This report examines a case of unclean surgical instrument use. It recommends external sterile service assessment and competency review as steps toward improving the reliability of instrument decontamination processes in the National Health Service.

Kuhn CM, Newton RC, Damewood MD, et al, on behalf of the CLER Evaluation Committee, the CLER Operative and Procedural Subprotocol National Advisory Group, and the CLER Program. Chicago, IL: Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education; February 2021. ISBN: 9781945365386.

The teaching hospital environment can produce clinician behaviors and mindsets that persist throughout a medical career. This report from a clinical learning environment assessment program shares insights gathered during walking rounds specific to perioperative care and general medicine. The report concluded that residents did not actively report problems and rarely participated in event investigations.
London, UK: Royal College of Surgeons of England; 2019.
Introducing innovations in practice involves taking calculated risks. To ensure patient safety, new techniques should be accompanied by training, oversight, and heightened awareness of the learning curve. This book provides a framework to guide the design and introduction of new surgical procedures into regular practice. It includes recommendations for auditing, cost assessment, and effectiveness review.
Royal College of Surgeons of England; RCS.
Physical demands and technical complexities can affect surgical safety. This resource is designed to capture frontline perceptions of surgeons in the United Kingdom regarding concerning behaviors exhibited by their peers during practice to facilitate awareness of problems, motivate improvement, and enable learning.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; AHRQ.
Preventing surgical complications including surgical site infections are a worldwide target for improvement. This toolkit builds on the success of the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program to initiate change. The tools represent practical strategies that helped members of a large-scale collaborative to identify areas of weakness, design improvements, and track the impact of the interventions.
Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh.
Surgical training is demanding and can result in burnout. This publication explores deficiencies in surgical training that can contribute to a stressful work environment and diminish the safety of care delivery. The report recommends changes to improve work climate and reduce the potential for error, including establishing a strong team culture and promoting human factors training.

McCulloch P, Morgan L, Flynn L, et al. Health Services and Delivery Research. Southampton, UK: NIHR Journals Library; 2016.

This publication reports five British hospitals' experiences with teamwork interventions in surgical teams. Although teamwork training alone improved how teams functioned, it did not always enhance clinical performance. The investigators found that integrated training that combines technical and social improvements, such as Lean, resulted in more effective improvements.
London, UK: Royal College of Surgeons of England; 2016.
Biases can affect decision making and behaviors toward colleagues and patients. This guidance provides information for surgeons to help them identify individual and organizational biases and to address disrespectful behaviors through training and peer support mechanisms.
Flin R, Youngson GG, Yule S. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2015. ISBN: 9781482246322.
Non-technical skill development is gaining attention as a way to enhance patient safety. This book provides information about how non-technical skills can improve safety in the surgical setting and describes a field-tested process for training and assessing surgeons' non-technical skills.