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JCAHO; Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations.
According to an AHRQ-supported study, wrong-site surgery occurred at a rate of approximately 1 per 113,000 operations between 1985 and 2004. In July 2004, The Joint Commission enacted a Universal Protocol that was developed through expert consensus on principles and steps for preventing wrong-site, wrong-procedure, and wrong-person surgery. The Universal Protocol applies to all accredited hospitals, ambulatory care, and office-based surgery facilities. The protocol requires performing a time out prior to beginning surgery, a practice that has been shown to improve teamwork and decrease the overall risk of wrong-site surgery. This Web site includes a number of resources and facts related to the Universal Protocol. Wrong-site, wrong-procedure, and wrong-patient errors are all now considered never events by the National Quality Forum and sentinel events by The Joint Commission. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services have not reimbursed for any costs associated with these surgical errors since 2009.
Rodham-Clinton H; Obama B. 109th Congress. 1st Session. S. 1784. September 28, 2005.
This bill, introduced to the Senate by Senators Clinton (D-NY) and Obama (D-IL), proposes a program under the direction of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to a) require hospitals to disclose errors to patients and offer reasonable financial settlements where appropriate; b) create a national patient safety database, comprised of confidential reports from health care institutions; and c) protect any statements about and apologies for errors that providers make to patients from being used in a later malpractice action.