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Combs CA, Einerson BD, Toner LE. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2021;225:b43-b49.
Maternal and newborn safety is challenged during cesarean delivery due to the complexities of the practice. This guideline recommends specific checklist elements to direct coordination and communication between the two teams engaged in cesarean deliveries. The guideline provides a sample checklist and steps for its implementation.
Kelley-Quon LI, Kirkpatrick MG, Ricca RL, et al. JAMA Surg. 2021;156:76.
Opioid misuse is an urgent patient safety issue, including postsurgical opioid misuse among pediatric patients. Based on the systematic review, a multidisciplinary group of health care and opioid stewardship experts proposes evidence-based opioid prescribing guidelines for children who need surgery. Endorsed guideline statements highlight three primary themes for perioperative pain management in children: (1) health care professionals must recognize the risks of pediatric opioid misuse, (2) use non-opioid pain relief, and (3) pre- and post-operative education for patients and families regarding pain management and safe opioid use.

The Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation, Society of Critical Care Medicine, American Association for Respiratory Care, American Society of Anesthesiologists, American Association of Critical‐Care Nurses, AACN, and American College of Chest Physicians. March 26, 2020.

Innovations must be incorporated into care processes with safety in mind. This announcement shares insights to mitigate strategies that may cause patient harm through alternative use of ventilators to support multiple patients with compromised respiratory function.

American College of Radiology. March 11, 2020.

As COVID-19 spreads globally, there is growing interest in methods for rapid diagnosis and the risk of diagnostic error. Delayed diagnosis of COVID-19 may lead to worse patient outcomes and increased exposure of healthy individuals to the novel coronavirus. Two early studies suggested that chest CT may have a sensitivity as high as 97%. However, higher quality studies have shown that the sensitivity of chest CT is only 67-93% among patients with viral pneumonia and imaging features must be interpreted with caution when the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection is low. Based on the risks of misdiagnosis and viral transmission, the American College of Radiology recommends that CT should not be used to screen for or as a first-line test to diagnose COVID-19. CT should be reserved for hospitalized, symptomatic patients with specific clinical indications.  
Bickham P, Golembiewski J, Meyer T, et al. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2019;76:903-820.
Pharmacists working with surgical teams bring distinct safety context, expertise, and process awareness to perioperative care. These guidelines outline how pharmacists can help reduce medication errors before, during, and after surgery. Perioperative pharmacists can enhance communication, medication histories, and process reliability.
Rosengart TK, Doherty G, Higgins R, et al. JAMA Surg. 2019;154:647-653.
Potential deterioration of older surgeons' technical performance is a patient safety concern. This guidance developed from a Society of Surgical Chairs panel discussion puts forth several steps to manage the transition of aging surgeons. Recommendations include mandatory cognitive and psychomotor testing for surgeons age 65 and older, respectful consideration of the financial and emotional concerns of aging surgeons, and lifelong mentoring around the transition from clinical to nonclinical roles. The authors anticipate that such initiatives will prompt thoughtful support for aging surgeons that ensures patient safety. In an accompanying editorial, an older physician supports mandatory testing and suggests individual-level steps to address aging as a surgeon, including healthy lifestyle and financial habits.
Lefebvre G, Calder LA, De Gorter R, et al. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2019;41:653-659.
Obstetrics is a high-risk practice that concurrently manages the safety of mothers and newborns. This commentary describes the importance of standardization, checklist use, auditing and feedback, peer coaching, and interdisciplinary communication as strategies to reduce risks. The discussion spotlights the need for national guidelines and definitions to reduce variation in auditing and training activities and calls for heightened engagement of health care professionals to improve the safety and quality of obstetric care in Canada. An Annual Perspective reviewed work on improving maternal safety.
Munoz-Price S, Bowdle A, Johnston L, et al. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2018:1-17.
This expert guidance provides recommendations to help health care facilities develop policies for preventing health care–associated infections in the operating room. The authors build on existing anesthesia safety practices to outline specific actions for infection prevention and control.
Gelb AW, Morriss WW, Johnson W, et al. Anesth Analg. 2018;126:2047-2055.
Safe anesthesia is a global concern. These standards provide guidance and recommendations for clinicians, administrators, and governments as they review, implement, and manage anesthesia services in a variety of care environments. The standards center on themes related to professional qualification; facilities and equipment; medications and intravenous fluids; monitoring; and anesthesia delivery.
Obstet Gynecol. 2016;128:e54-60.
Incidents involving maternal harm require analysis to provide learning and assist design of prevention strategies. This consensus document outlines an organizational process to determine cases for review and provides a set of diagnostic and complication screening criteria to assess severe maternal morbidity incidents for quality review. The document supersedes the Sentinel Event Alert on maternal harm.
AORN J. 2018;107:489-494.
Perioperative medication errors can result in patient harm as well as emotional distress among clinical team members. This guideline summary outlines best practices to ensure surgical teams employ methods to design, implement, and assess medication safety processes and improvements. A related commentary discusses how to integrate the guidelines into frontline care activities.

Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018. ISBN-13: 978-92-4-155047-5.

Efforts to reduce surgical site infections have achieved some success. The World Health Organization has taken a leading role in eliminating health care–associated harms and has compiled guidelines to address factors that contribute to surgical site infections in preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative care. The document includes recommendations for improvement informed by the latest evidence. The second edition of the Guidelines was released in 2018.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ Committee on Patient Safety and Quality Improvement. Obstet Gynecol. 2016;128:e237-e240.

Checklists are a common strategy to improve safety in health care settings, but they may not be successfully implemented. This review discusses the use of checklists as a cognitive aid to improve communication and reduce variation. The authors outline how to choose processes that would benefit from a checklist and suggest that providers using the checklist be actively involved in their development, implementation, and evaluation.

American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Pediatric Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians Pediatric Emergency Medicine Committee, Emergency Nurses Association Pediatric Committee. Pediatrics. 2016;138:e20162680.

Improvement efforts have focused on care transitions, which are known to be vulnerable to communication failures. This guideline provides recommendations for ensuring handoffs are performed in pediatric emergency care and suggests adherence to standard communication methods, coupled with effective training on the use of those tools, can improve the safety of transitions.
London, UK: Royal College of Surgeons of England; 2016.
Biases can affect decision making and behaviors toward colleagues and patients. This guidance provides information for surgeons to help them identify individual and organizational biases and to address disrespectful behaviors through training and peer support mechanisms.