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The PSNet Collection: All Content

The AHRQ PSNet Collection comprises an extensive selection of resources relevant to the patient safety community. These resources come in a variety of formats, including literature, research, tools, and Web sites. Resources are identified using the National Library of Medicine’s Medline database, various news and content aggregators, and the expertise of the AHRQ PSNet editorial and technical teams.

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Displaying 1 - 20 of 629 Results
Ravindran S, Matharoo M, Rutter MD, et al. Endoscopy. 2023;Epub Sept 18.
Understanding the influence of human factors on team and system performance can help safety professionals identify opportunities for improvement. In this study, researchers used a large, centralized incident reporting database in the United Kingdom to examine the human factors contributing to non-procedural endoscopy-related patient safety incidents. Based on Human Factors Analysis and Classification System coding, decision-based errors were the most common factor contributing to incidents, but other contributing factors were also identified, including lack of resources and ineffective team communication.
WebM&M Case November 29, 2023

This case describes a 55-year-old woman who sustained critical injuries after a motor vehicle crash and had a lengthy hospitalization. On hospital day 30, a surgeon placed a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube in the intensive care unit (ICU) after computed tomography (CT) scan showed no interposed bowel between the stomach and the anterior abdominal wall.  After the uncomplicated PEG placement, the surgeon cleared the patient’s team to advance tube feeds as tolerated.

Samost-Williams A, Rosen R, Cummins E, et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2023;Epub Oct 15.
Team-based morbidity and mortality conferences (TBMMs) involve multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary teams in discussions about complex cases and medical errors. This survey of 1,466 perioperative health care professionals found positive perceptions of TBMMs and traditional Morbidity and Mortality Conferences, but identified several barriers to effective implementation of TBMMs, including unsupportive leadership and fear of professional consequences.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2023. ISBN: 9780309711937.

Maternal health care is rapidly emerging as a high-risk service that is vulnerable to communication, equity, and diagnostic challenges. This report examines the role of disparities in care across the maternal care continuum and strategies to drive diagnostic improvement such as care bundles, midwives, and health information technology. This publication is from a series of programs and resultant publications on improving diagnostic excellence.

Pelikan M, Finney RE, Jacob A. AANA J. 2023;91(5):371-379.

Providers involved in patient safety incidents can experience adverse psychological and physiological outcomes, also referred to as second victim experiences (SVE). This study used the Second Victim Experience and Support Tool (SVEST) to evaluate the impact of a peer support program on anesthesia providers’ SVE. Two years after program implementation, reported psychological distress decreased and over 80% of participants expressed favorable views of the program and its impact on safety culture.
Lowe JT, Leonard J, Dominguez F, et al. Diagnosis (Berl). 2023;Epub Oct 6.
Non-English primary language (NEPL) patients may encounter barriers navigating the healthcare system and communicating with providers. In this retrospective study, researchers used the Safer Dx tool to explore differences in diagnostic errors among NEPL versus English-proficient (EP) patients. Among 172 patients who experienced a diagnostic error, the proportion was similar among EP and NEPL groups and NEPL did not predict higher odds of diagnostic error.
Perspective on Safety October 31, 2023

This piece focuses on workplace violence trends in healthcare settings and strategies for creating a safer healthcare environment.

This piece focuses on workplace violence trends in healthcare settings and strategies for creating a safer healthcare environment.

Cheryl B. Jones

Editor’s note: Cheryl B. Jones is a professor, director of the Hillman Scholars Program, and interim associate dean of the School of Nursing’s PhD program at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. We spoke to her about workplace violence trends in healthcare settings and how we can create a safer work environment for healthcare staff.

Naya K, Aikawa G, Ouchi A, et al. PLoS One. 2023;18:e0292108.
Healthcare workers who are involved in patient safety incidents and experience adverse psychological or emotional outcomes are often referred to as second victims. This systematic review and meta-analysis found that 58% of healthcare workers in intensive care unit (ICU) settings have experienced second victim outcomes, including guilt, anxiety, anger at oneself, and decreased self-confidence. The review also found that one in five individuals took longer than 12 months to recover or did not recover at all, underscoring the importance of organizational support programs for healthcare workers involved in patient safety incidents.
Michelson KA, McGarghan FLE, Waltzman ML, et al. Hosp Pediatr. 2023;13:e170-e174.
Trigger tools are commonly used to detect adverse events and identify areas for safety improvement. This study found that trigger tools using electronic health record-based data can accurately identify delayed diagnosis of appendicitis in pediatric patients in community emergency department (ED) settings.
Samost-Williams A, Rosen R, Hannenberg A, et al. Ann Surg Open. 2023;4:e321.
Morbidity and mortality conferences offer important opportunities for healthcare teams to discuss adverse events, learn from errors, and improve patient safety. This systematic review examined beneficial aspects of perioperative team-based morbidity and mortality (TBMM) conferences. The authors found that TBMM conferences generally led to improvements in patient safety, quality improvement, and educational outcomes and that certain factors (case preparation, standardized presentation format, effective facilitation) increase TBMM benefits.
Harbell MW, Maloney J, Anderson MA, et al. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2023;27:407-415.
Provider bias may impact the pain management patients receive post-operatively. This review presents recent findings on the types and amounts of pain management patients receive. Results suggest women and people of color receive less pain medication despite reporting higher pain scores. Results regarding socio-economic status and English language proficiency bias are mixed. Implicit bias training, prescribing guidelines for all patients, and culturally competent pain management scales have all been suggested as ways to reduce provider bias and improve pain management.
Gupta AB, Greene MT, Fowler KE, et al. J Patient Saf. 2023;19:447-452.
As high workload and interruptions are known contributors to diagnostic errors, significant research has been conducted to understand and ameliorate the impact of these factors. This study examined the association between hospitalist busyness (i.e., number of admissions and pages), resource utilization, number of differential diagnoses, and the hospitalist's diagnostic confidence and subjective awareness. Increasing levels of busyness were associated with hospitalists reporting it was "difficult to focus on what is happening in the present" but had no effect on diagnostic confidence.
Arastehmanesh D, Mangino A, Eshraghi N, et al. J Emerg Med. 2023;65:e250-e255.
Characteristics inherent to the emergency department (ED), such as overcrowding and unfamiliar patients, make it susceptible to errors. This article describes a novel process for identification of ED errors by adding the question, "Would you have done something differently?" to the chart review process. Adding this question and requiring a detailed explanation of what they would have done differently allowed for differentiation between a true medical error and a judgment call that coincides with an adverse event. Near misses, adverse events, and adverse events attributable to error were significantly higher when reviewers would have done something differently.
Essa CD, Victor G, Khan SF, et al. Am J Emerg Med. 2023;73:63-68.
Emergency department triage nurses use their knowledge, experience, expertise, and critical thinking skills to prioritize patients by severity, ensuring the sickest patients are seen first. This study sought to identify cognitive biases that may negatively impact nurses' triage decision making. In a scenario describing a patient at Emergency Severity Index (ESI) level 1, the highest level, only 51% of nurses selected the cognitively unbiased triage response.
Soenens G, Marchand B, Doyen B, et al. Ann Surg. 2023;278:e5-e12.
Leadership style can dramatically impact the culture of safety. This analysis of video-recorded endovascular procedures found that surgeons’ transformational leadership style (e.g., motivation/enthusiasm, individual consideration, emphasis on the collective mission) positively impacts team behaviors such as speaking up behaviors and knowledge sharing.
Cornell EG, Harris E, McCune E, et al. Diagnosis (Berl). 2023;Epub Aug 21.
Structured handoffs can improve the quality of patient information passed from one care team to another. This article describes intensivists' perspectives on a potential handoff tool (ICU-PAUSE) for handoff from the intensive care unit (ICU) to medical ward. They described the usefulness of a structured clinical note, especially regarding pending tests and the status of high-risk medications. Several barriers were also discussed, such as the frequent training required for residents who rotate in and out of the ICU and potential duplication of the daily chart note.
WebM&M Case September 27, 2023

This case describes the failure to identify a brewing abdominal process, which over the span of hours led to fulminant sepsis with rapid clinical deterioration and eventual demise. The patient’s ascitic fluid cultures and autopsy findings confirmed bowel perforation, but this diagnosis was never explicitly considered.

WebM&M Case September 27, 2023

A 42-year-old man with a history of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol use disorder and anxiety disorder, was seen in the emergency department (ED) after a high-risk suicide attempt by hanging. The patient was agitated and attempted to escape from the ED while on an involuntary psychiatric commitment. The ED staff treated him as a “routine boarder” awaiting an inpatient bed, with insufficiently robust behavioral monitoring.

Irving, TX: American College of Emergency Physicians; 2023.

Error disclosure is difficult yet important for patient and clinician psychological healing. This statement provides guidance to address barriers to emergency physician disclosure of errors that took place in the emergency room. Recommendations for improvement include the development of organizational policies that support error reporting, disclosure procedures, and disclosure communication training.
El Boghdady M, Ewalds-Kvist BM. Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2023;408:349.
Disruptive behavior in the healthcare setting can result in neglect of patient care, decreased teamwork, and poor safety culture. This study from the UK found that 22% of surgeons were at risk of displaying disruptive behavior in the workplace and that being bullied during surgical training predicted hostility. These results reinforce the need for strong safety culture and a supportive learning environment for trainees.